Gulf of Aden Security Review

A regularly updated review of both Yemen and the Horn of Africa covering topics related to security, governance, and militant activity.{{authorBox.message}}

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Yemen: Yemeni President Hadi attempts to unify the GPC under his leadership and isolate the STC; AQAP maintains more influence in Yemen than ISIS according to UN report; U.S. policy makers request clarification on the U.S. involvement in the Yemen war

Horn of Africa: UN report finds al Shabaab enhanced its capabilities and maintains influence in Somalia; ISIS generates $72,000 a month by extorting businesses in northern Somalia; U.S. authorities arrest refugee couple for lying to immigration officers about alleged ties to al Shabaab; UAE plans oil pipeline connecting Ethiopia to Eritrea

Yemen Security Brief

Yemeni President Abdu Rabbu Mansour Hadi called on the members of the General People’s Congress (GPC), primarily supporters of the former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, to support his government and defeat the al Houthi movement during his visit to Cairo, Egypt on August 13 and 14. Sources within the GPC claim that many GPC leaders boycotted the meeting with Hadi and will not agree to a united GPC party under his leadership. Sources close to Hadi also claim that he plans to unite the Islah Party with his government and remove the Transitional Political Party for the South (STC) from political negotiations. U.S. Ambassador to Yemen Matthew Tueller also met with Hadi while he was in Cairo, Egypt. Ambassador Tueller expressed support for Hadi’s efforts to unify the GPC, according to a Hadi government press statement.[1]

Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) maintains more influence in Yemen than the Islamic State in Iraq and al Sham (ISIS), according to a UN report. The report on ISIS and al Qaeda by the UN’s Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring team also stated that AQAP maintains a strong organizational and leadership structure, which will likely increase the threat from AQAP over time. This strength may also encourage ISIS supporters to join AQAP, further weakening ISIS in Yemen. ISIS in Yemen reportedly commands only 250 to 500 members while AQAP commands 6,000 to 7,000 militants. The UN report stated that AQAP seeks to build a reputation for “humanitarianism and governance” in Yemen, whereas ISIS’s “extreme ideology and brutality” discourages Yemeni recruits.[2]

Senator Elizabeth Warren requested clarification on past congressional testimony regarding the U.S. role in the Yemen war in a letter to the head of the U.S. Central Command General Joseph Votel on August 14. Sources from the Pentagon previously stated that the U.S. does not track how Saudi Arabia uses American weapons. U.S. intelligence personnel are stationed in Saudi airstrike command centers. U.S. Congressman Ted Lieu (D-CA) demanded the Pentagon investigate U.S. involvement in Saudi-led coalition airstrikes, which have hit civilian targets on several occasions. Lieu called for an investigation into whether U.S. personnel working with the coalition were abiding by Department of Defense (DoD) guidelines in a letter drafted to the Inspector General of the DoD. The congressman is concerned about legal ramifications for U.S. complicity in war crimes committed by American partners.[3]

Horn of Africa Security Brief

Al Shabaab has enhanced its capabilities and maintained its influence in Somalia, according to a UN report. The report on ISIS and al Qaeda by the UN’s Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team also stated that al Shabaab adopted a new strategy of operating in small teams after 200 al Shabaab militants were killed or injured in early 2018. Al Shabaab mainly sources weapons and ammunition from local militias, Somali army defectors, and smuggling from Libya and Yemen. The UN team also reported that the Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham (ISIS) is weak in the country but Somalia will likely be a future focus for ISIS operations. ISIS in Somalia relies on criminal activity and limited support from ISIS in Yemen to fund its operations, according to the report.[4]

ISIS militants in Somalia are taxing businesses in Boosaaso city, Puntland, northern Somalia, according to a local news source. ISIS also shut down a telecommunications tower 75 kilometers east of Boosaaso in early August and may have been responsible for the August 7 assassination of the deputy manager of the company that owns the tower. ISIS militants are generating $72,000 a month in revenue by extorting business and wealthy individuals, according to anonymous Puntland security officials.[5]

U.S. authorities arrested a refugee couple for lying to immigration officers about alleged ties to al Shabaab on August 10. Mohamed Abdirahman Osman, who was living in Tucson, reportedly moved to Mogadishu from Jijiga in Ethiopia’s Somali State after being recruited by al Shabaab. Osman was injured while handling explosives in 2009, according to a U.S. indictment.[6]

The UAE is planning on building an oil pipeline connecting Eritrea’s Assab port city to the capital of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia began extracting crude oil from its southeastern regions in June. Ethiopian media announced the plan on August 10 after Ethiopia Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed met with Emirati Minister of State for International Cooperation Reem al Hashimy.[7]


 
[1] “Presidential efforts to unify the General Peoples Congress party,” Mareb Press, August 14, 2018, https://marebpress.net/news_details.php?lang=arabic&sid=140739; “President Hadi sends an important invitation to all the leaders and members of the Congress Party,” Mareb Press, August 14, 2018, https://marebpress.net/news_details.php?lang=arabic&sid=140739; “Hadi and Sisi meet and confidential information reveals a conspiracy of the STC to be removed from the political scene,” Hadramout Net, August 14, 2018, https://www.7adramout.net/salmashhad/1989164/%D8%A7%D8%AE%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D8%B9%D8%AF%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%88%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%AB%D8%A7%D8%A1-1482018--%D9%87%D8%A7%D8%AF%D9%8A-%D9%88%D9%84%D9%82%D8%A7%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%B3%D9%8A-%D9%85%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%88%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%B3%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%AA%D9%83%D8%B4%D9%81-%D8%AA%D8%A2%D9%85%D8%B1-%D8%B1%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B9%D9%8A-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%AC%D9%84%D8%B3-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%86%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%8A-%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%B9%D8%A7%D8%AF%D9%87-%D9%85%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B4%D9%87%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B3%D9%8A-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%86%D9%88%D8%A8.html; “A Consensus on the refusal of Abdu Rabbu Mansour Hadi leadership of the GPC,” Barakish Net, August 15, 2018, http://www.barakish.net/news.aspx?cat=12&sub=23&id=551090; and “The President of the Republic receives the American Ambassador to our country,” Official Website of the President of the Republic of Yemen, August 14, 2018, https://presidenthadi-gov-ye.info/ar/archives/%D8%B1%D8%A6%D9%8A%D8%B3-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D9%87%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%8A%D8%B3%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%A8%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%85%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%83-28/.
[2] “Letter dated 16 July 2018 from the Chair of the Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999), 1989 (2011) and 2253 (2015) concerning Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (Da’esh), Al-Qaida and associated individuals, groups, undertakings and entities addressed to the President of the Security Council,” United Nations Security Council, July 27, 2018, http://undocs.org/S/2018/705.
[3] Alex Emmons, “Elizabeth Warren demands in letter that U.S. military explain its role in Yemen bombings,” The Intercept, August 14, 2018, https://theintercept.com/2018/08/14/elizabeth-warren-yemen-bombing-us-military/; “A member of U.S. Congress: The Pentagon is involved in coalition attacks on Yemen,” 26 September, http://26sep.net/news_details.php?lang=arabic&sid=140285; and “Rep Lieu calls for DOD IG Investigation Into U.S. Role in Civilian Casualties In Yemen,” Ted Lieu, https://lieu.house.gov/media-center/press-releases/rep-lieu-calls-dod-investigation-uss-role-civilian-casualties-yemen.
[4] “Letter dated 16 July 2018 from the Chair of the Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999), 1989 (2011) and 2253 (2015) concerning Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (Da’esh), Al-Qaida and associated individuals, groups, undertakings and entities addressed to the President of the Security Council,” United Nations Security Council, July 27, 2018, http://undocs.org/S/2018/705.
[5] “Somalia: ISIL-linked faction imposes tax on businesses in Bosaso,” Garowe Online, August 15, 2018, https://www.garoweonline.com/en/news/puntland/somalia-isil-linked-faction-impose-taxes-on-businesses-in-bosaso.
[6] “Feds arrest Tucson man for links to Somali terrorist group,” The Arizona Daily Star, August 12, 2018, https://www.hiiraan.com/news4/2018/Aug/159503/feds_arrest_tucson_man_for_links_to_somali_terrorist_group.aspx.
[7] “Assab to Addis Ababa: UAE plans Ethiopia-Eritrea oil pipeline,” Africa News, August 11, 2018, http://www.africanews.com/2018/08/11/assab-to-addis-ababa-uae-plans-ethiopia-eritrea-oil-pipeline/.

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Yemen: STC presidential body demands unconditional inclusion in UN negotiations; AQAP militants attack Emirati-backed forces in Abyan and al Houthi forces in al Bayda; U.S. Secretary of Defense dispatches three-star general to investigate Saudi-led coalition airstrike that killed children

Horn of Africa: SNA interdicts al Shabaab VBIED in Alamada near Mogadishu; al Shabaab clashes with local militias in Jilib district, Middle Jubba region; ethnic violence breaks out among IDPs in Adama, Ethiopia; Ugandan police crack down on opposition protesters throwing rocks at president’s convoy in Arua, Uganda

Yemen Security Brief

The presidential body of the Transitional Political Council for the South (STC) sent a public message to the UN Special Envoy to Yemen demanding its unconditional inclusion in future negotiations and stating that the southern issue should be included in any dialogue, consultation, or negotiation. The message was in response to Special Envoy Martin Griffiths’ August 12 announcement that the STC would not be included in the first round of UN consultations on September 6.  The presidential body also stated that forming two sovereign independent Yemeni states is the only solution for long-term stability in the region.[1]

Emirati Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Anwar Gargash stated that al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) is weakening due to Emirati-backed counterterrorism efforts in Yemen on August 13. He added that the UAE advocates for a political solution in Yemen but is concerned that the al Houthi movement may impede peace talks. Gargash acknowledged the coalition’s responsibility for “some of the humanitarian weights” of the conflict but also urged NGOs and the international community to scrutinize the al Houthi movement’s actions. [2]

AQAP militants detonated an IED targeting an al Hizam Security Forces vehicle in al Wade’a district, Abyan governorate, southern Yemen on August 10. AQAP also attacked al Houthi forces with artillery and medium-caliber weapons in Dhi Madahi area in al Sawma'ah district, southern al Bayda governorate, central Yemen on August 14. AQAP has claimed three attacks against Emirati-backed forces in Abyan and one attack against al Houthi forces in al Bayda in August.[3]

U.S. Secretary of Defense James Mattis ordered a three-star general to investigate the August 9 Saudi-led coalition airstrike that killed approximately 40 children in Sa’ada governorate, northern Yemen. Mattis urged the Saudi government to investigate the incident and share its findings with the public. The coalition claimed the airstrike was a legitimate strike targeting al Houthi forces responsible for firing ballistic missiles at Saudi Arabia.[4]

Horn of Africa Security Brief

Somali National Army (SNA) forces interdicted an al Shabaab attack on a base in Alamada village on the outskirts of Mogadishu on August 14. An SNA commander credited a public tip for warning the SNA of the attack, which involved a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED).[5]

Al Shabaab militants clashed with local fighters in Jilib district, Middle Jubba region on August 13. The clashes began after al Shabaab fighters arrested farmers they accused of being Kenyans. Local fighters retaliated by attacking al Shabaab bases in the area. The clashes killed six local militiamen and three al Shabaab militants.[6]

Violence between internally displaced persons in Adama, Oromia region, Ethiopia killed one person and injured 36 others on August 14. The clashes, between members of the Somali and Oromo ethnic groups, follow attacks by Ethiopian Somali paramilitary forces in the Oromia region on August 11 and 12.[7]

Ugandan police clashed with opposition protesters who threw stones at the convoy of Uganda President Yoweri Museveni in Arua, Uganda on August 14. Museveni was in the area to campaign for a ruling party candidate in bye-elections following the assassination of a member of parliament (MP) last week. Police arrested three opposition MPs in response. One MP, whose whereabouts are currently unknown, said that police killed his driver in the clash.[8]


 
[1] “The Presidency of the Southern Transitional Council provides important clarifications to the UN envoy to Yemen regarding any negotiations concerning the issue of the people of the South,” Southern Transition Council, August 13, 2018, http://stcaden.com/news/8701.
[2] “Gargash: Al Qaeda in Yemen is weaker than ever,” The National, August 13, 2018, https://www.thenational.ae/world/gcc/gargash-al-qaeda-in-yemen-is-weaker-than-ever-1.759629.
[3] “Explosion of an improvised explosion device targeting food transport in al Ouda,” Aden al Hadath, August 10, 2018, http://adenalhadath.net/news/41403; Elisabeth Kendall, Twitter, August 14, 2018, https://twitter.com/Dr_E_Kendall/status/1029326080413507584; and Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula claims an attack on al Houthi fighters in al Bayda province, Telegram, August 14, 2018; and AQAP militants detonated an IED targeting an al Hizam Security Forces vehicle in al Wade’a district, Telegram, August 10, 2018.
[4] Missy Ryan, “U.S. general urges Saudi Arabia to investigate airstrike that killed dozens of children in Yemen,” The Washington Post, August 13, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-general-urges-saudi-arabia-to-investigate-airstrike-that-killed-dozens-of-children-in-yemen/2018/08/13/a2931eea-9f0f-11e8-83d2-70203b8d7b44_story.html?utm_term=.21eba6dc5f2d.
[5] “Security forces foil attack outside Mogadishu, arrest 5 militants,” Xinhua, August 14, 2018, http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-08/14/c_137389984.htm.
[6] “Nine killed in clashes between al-Shabaab and locals near Jilib town,” Halbeeg, August 13, 2018, https://en.halbeeg.com/2018/08/13/nine-killed-in-clashes-between-al-shabaab-and-locals-near-jilib-town/.
[7] Addis Standard, Twitter, August 14, 2018, https://twitter.com/addisstandard/status/1029337657212645376; and “Gulf of Aden Security Review: August 13, 2018,” Critical Threats Project at the American Enterprise Institute, August 13, 2018,  https://www.criticalthreats.org/briefs/gulf-of-aden-security-review/gulf-of-aden-security-review-august-13-2018.
[8] Elias Biryabarema, “Uganda police arrest three MP’s after stones through at Museveni’s convoy,” Reuters, August 14, 2018, https://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFKBN1KZ1DN-OZATP; and  Daniel Mumbere, “Uganda’s Bobi Wine is missing after deadly clashes with Museveni’s security,” Africa News, August 14, 2018, http://www.africanews.com/2018/08/14/uganda-s-bobi-wine-is-missing-following-deadly-clashes-with-museveni-s-security/.

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Yemen: UN consultations in Geneva will focus on a deal between Hadi government and the al Houthi movement to form a transitional government; Yemeni President Hadi travels to Cairo to discuss security in the Red Sea; Hadi government leaders discuss Yemeni political process during GCC conference in Riyadh; al Houthi leaders discuss conditions for upcoming UN consultations; Emirati-led Yemeni forces assault center of al Darayhimi district, south of al Hudaydah port

Horn of Africa: Al Shabaab IED strikes Kenya border wall workers in Mandera County; al Shabaab claims IED attacks in Afgoi and Baidoa; Ethiopian Somali State paramilitary forces attack in Oromia region as ethnic violence continues; gunmen kidnap aid workers near Baidoa, southwestern Somalia

Yemen Security Brief:

UN Special Envoy to Yemen Martin Griffiths stated that the September 6 consultations in Geneva will focus on reaching a deal between Abdu Rabbu Mansour Hadi’s government and the al Houthi movement to form a transitional government. Griffiths also stated that Representatives of the General People’s Congress (GPC) and the Transitional Political Council for the South (STC) must be included in the transition process but the initial round of consultations will not address the future of southern Yemen.[1]

Yemeni President Hadi traveled to Cairo, Egypt on August 13 to discuss security in the Bab al Mandab Strait and the Red Sea with Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el Sisi. Hadi plans to discuss the recent “al Houthi threats” to international shipping during the two-day trip from August 13 to 14. Al Houthi forces struck a Saudi oil tanker in the Red Sea on July 25.[2]

Hadi government officials met with leaders of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) to discuss the Yemeni political process on August 13 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Hadi’s Prime Minister Ahmed Obaid Bin Daghir emphasized that UN resolution 2216 requires al Houthi forces to withdraw from Yemen’s capital Sana’a city and disarm during the conference. Bin Daghir also reiterated the Hadi government’s commitment to the outputs of the National Dialogue Conference, which he claims was created in agreement with the al Houthi movement and the Southern Movement.[3]

Al Houthi movement leaders met on August 13 in the Yemeni capital Sana’a to discuss their conditions for the upcoming UN consultations in Geneva. Al Houthi leaders rejected UN resolution 2216, claiming that conditions on the ground make it irrelevant, and are forming a united negotiating delegation including representatives from the al Houthi-allied GPC. The al Houthi movement’s conditions for the consultations include the Saudi-led coalition end its bombing campaign, allow commercial flights to Sana’a, and lift its restrictions on al Houthi-controlled ports.[4]

Emirati-backed Yemeni forces claimed to seize critical roads in al Darayhimi district, south of al Hudaydah city, western Yemen on August 12. Southern Giants forces claimed to capture 100 al Houthi fighters and cut a supply line linking al Darayhimi to Bayt al Faqih city, central al Hudaydah governorate, according to a Hadi government military spokesperson. Emirati-backed Yemeni forces continue to clash with al Houthi forces in al Darayhimi city.[5]

Horn of Africa Security Brief

An al Shabaab improvised explosive device (IED) attack struck a vehicle carrying workers on the Kenyan-Somali border wall on August 13, killing three people and injuring another. Al Shabaab claimed that the attack struck a military vehicle and killed more than 12 Kenyan troops. Kenya is constructing the border wall to prevent al Shabaab attacks from Somalia.[6]

Al Shabaab militants detonated an IED targeting African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) forces near Afgoi in Lower Shabelle region on August 11, days after AMISOM and Somali National Army (SNA) forces launched counterterrorism operations near the city. Al Shabaab also conducted an IED attack targeting Somali soldiers in Baidoa in Bay region on August 10. Al Shabaab claimed both attacks.[7]

Paramilitary forces from Ethiopia’s Somali State conducted cross-border attacks into the East Hararghe district in Oromia region on August 11 and 12. The attacks by the Liyu paramilitary forces killed approximately 40 people. A spokesman from the Oromia region accused Somali regional officials of stoking the violence. Ethnic violence has escalated in the Oromia and Somali regions since the beginning of August. Revenge attacks between ethnic groups have also occurred in Djibouti. The Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF), a secessionist group based in the Somali State, declared a unilateral ceasefire on August 12 in response to outreach from Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed.[8]

Gunmen kidnapped five aid workers near Baidoa on August 12. The aid workers were delivering nutritional supplements to an internally displaced persons’ camp near Busley village.[9]


[1] “U.N. envoy says Yemen talks to focus on transition, disarmament: newspaper,” Reuters, August 11, 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-yemen-security/u-n-envoy-says-yemen-talks-to-focus-on-transition-disarmament-newspaper-idUSKBN1KW06E; and “Griffiths to Asharq al Awsat: Saudi Arabia Has Legitimate Right to Secure its Borders,” Asharq al-Awsat, August 11, 2018, https://aawsat.com/english/home/article/1359991/griffiths-asharq-al-awsat-saudi-arabia-has-legitimate-right-secure-its-borders.

[2] “Secure navigation in the Bab al Mandab Strait tops the meeting of Sisi and Abdu Rabbu Mansour Hadi Tomorrow,” Hadramout Net, August 13, 2018, https://www.7adramout.net/youm7/1986726/%D8%A7%D8%AE%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D9%85%D8%B5%D8%B1---%D8%AA%D8%A3%D9%85%D9%8A%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%AD%D8%A9-%D8%A8%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%A8-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%86%D8%AF%D8%A8-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%AD%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%AD%D9%85%D8%B1-%D8%AA%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D9%84%D9%82%D8%A7%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%B3%D9%89-%D9%88%D8%B9%D8%A8%D8%AF-%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%87-%D9%85%D9%86%D8%B5%D9%88%D8%B1-%D8%BA%D8%AF%D8%A7.html.

[3] “Full text of Bin Daghir’s speech at the GCC conference for the political solution in Yemen,” Al Wattan Net, August 13, 2018, http://alwattan.net/news/24410.

[4] “Houthis delay Geneva meeting by rejecting Security Council Resolution,” Mareb Press, August 13, 2018, https://marebpress.net/news_details.php?lang=arabic&sid=140696.

[5] “Yemeni Army liberate al-Darayhimi in al Hudaydah, capture 100 Houthis,” al-Arabiya English, August 12, 2018, http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/gulf/2018/08/12/Yemeni-army-liberate-al-Durahmi-in-Hodeidah-captured-100-Houthis-.html; and “The Southern Giants Brigades force al Houthis to flee their positions in al Darayhimi,” Aden Gad, August 13, 2018, http://adengad.net/news/332096/.

[6] “3 die as al Shabaab targets Mandera border wall workers,” The Daily Nation, August 13, 2018, https://www.nation.co.ke/counties/mandera/IED-attack-kills-3-in-Mandera/1183298-4710446-lnyug1/index.html; and “Shabaab claims bombing KDF vehicle in Mandera, attacks on AMISOM and SNA in multiple areas in Somalia,” SITE Intelligence Group, translation available by subscription at www.ent.siteintelgroup.com.

[7] “Shabaab claims bombing KDF vehicle in Mandera, attacks on AMISOM and SNA in multiple areas in Somalia,” SITE Intelligence Group, translation available by subscription at www.ent.siteintelgroup.com;  and “Gulf of Aden Security Review,” Critical Threats Project at the American Enterprise Institute, August 9, 2018, https://www.criticalthreats.org/briefs/gulf-of-aden-security-review/gulf-of-aden-security-review-august-9-2018.

[8] Aaron Maasho, “UPDATE 2- At least 40 killed by paramilitaries in eastern Ethiopia,” Reuters, August 13, 2018, https://af.reuters.com/article/ethiopiaNews/idAFL5N1V45FJ; Aaron Maasho, “Ethiopian rebels declare ceasefire amid government reforms,” Reuters, August 12, 2018, https://af.reuters.com/article/africaTech/idAFL5N1V30CE; and “Six Oromo men killed in Djibouti for revenge attacks over Dire Dawa,” Mareeg, August 11, 2018, https://mareeg.com/six-oromo-men-killed-in-djibouti-for-revenge-attacks-over-the-dire-wawa/.

[9] Jerry Omondi, “Somali authorities search for aid workers kidnapped by gunmen,” CGTN Africa, August 12, 2018, https://africa.cgtn.com/2018/08/12/somali-authorities-search-for-aid-workers-kidnapped-by-gunmen/.

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