Northern Yemen (Photo by aisha59, available at Flickr.)

January 28, 2010

Profile: al Houthi Movement

Northern Yemen (Photo by aisha59, available at Flickr.)
 

Aaron Zelin contributed to the research for this piece.

The al Houthi movement in Yemen traces its roots back to a political and paramilitary group called the Believing Youth established in the mid-1990s by Hussein Badr al Din al Houthi. The Believing Youth was aligned with the pro-government al Huqq party and sought to revive Zaydism, a Shiite sect whose tenets include the belief that only descendants of the Prophet Mohammad can be legitimate Muslim rulers. After Yemen President Ali Abdullah Saleh aligned himself with the U.S. in 2001, Hussein al Houthi increasingly spoke out against the state, and the group held mass anti-government and anti-American demonstrations. The government issued a reward for the capture of Hussein and security forces killed him in September 2004 during an attempt to arrest him. His death ignited an uprising by his followers, who became known as the al Houthis.

The al Houthi movement draws its supporters from the Zaydi Shiite population in northern Yemen and is primarily active in Sa'ada and Amran provinces. The al Houthis' grievances include economic and social marginalization, corruption in the government, close alignment of the state with the U.S. and Saudi Arabia, and excessive Wahhabi influence on state policy and schools. The al Houthi rebels do not see President Saleh as a legitimate ruler, despite the fact that he is also a Zaydi, because he is not of the Haashimite bloodline (descended from the Prophet). Haashimite Imams ruled Yemen for centuries before the 1962 coup that deposed the imamate. Al Houthi leaders, however, are quick to deny accusations that the goal of the al Houthi movement is to re-establish a Shiite imamate in the north of Yemen – an accusation the government often repeats. The al Houthi movement claims to seek autonomy from the Yemeni state for the Zaydi Shiite population in order to redress its other stated grievances.

There have been multiple attempts at ceasefires and peace deals since the beginning of the conflict, but agreements have repeatedly collapsed, leading to the resumption of fighting. Most recently, the government launched a full-scale military offensive, OPERATION SCORCHED EARTH, in August 2009 in response to the al Houthi takeover of schools, hospitals, mosques, military installations, and roads in Saíada and Amran provinces. Clashes have been continuing since then and have spilled over into neighboring Saudi Arabia. Riyadh announced in the last week of January 2010 that it had defeated the al Houthi rebels in its territory and was withdrawing its forces.

 
Leadership of the al Houthi Movement

Founder and First Leader: Sheikh Hussein Badr al Din al Houthi

  • He reportedly lived part of his life in Iran[1]

  • He was a religious scholar and reportedly held Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in high regard; he is said to have written a book called The Influence of the Philosophy of Imam Khomeini on Hussein Al Houthi

  • He served in parliament from 1993 to 1997 in the pro-monarchy al Huqq (Truth) Islamic Party[2]

  • After his term in parliament, he dedicated his time to leading the "Believing Youth," a group he helped establish in the mid-1990s affiliated with the al Huqq Party; the Believing Youth aimed to revive Zaydi activism through proselytizing and education[3]

  • He repeatedly pledged loyalty to the state and denied that he was leading a rebellion[4]

  • Badr al Din al Houthi, Hussein's father, claimed that Hussein's objective was simply to defend Islam[5]

  • Hussein accused the government of being subservient to the United States[6]

  • The government accused him of establishing unlicensed religious centers, arming the Believing Youth, and staging violent anti-American protests[7]

  • The government accused the Believing Youth of attempting to reestablish an imamate[8]

  • The government accused Hussein and Believing Youth of receiving support from Iran and modeling itself after Hezbollah[9]

  • On June 18, 2004, Yemeni police arrested 640 followers of Hussein who were demonstrating in front of Sana'a Grand Mosque, and two days later launched an operation to arrest Hussein in the mountains of Sa'ada province[10]

  • In July 2004, the government offered a $75,000 reward for the capture of Hussein[11]

  • Yemeni forces killed Hussein Badr al Din al Houthi on September 9, 2004 in the mountains of Sa'ada province[12]

  • Some al Houthis maintain that he is still alive, but these claims are widely dismissed[13]

 
Hussein's Successors: Badr al Din al Houthi and Abdullah Ayed al Ruzami

Badr al Din al Houthi

  • Badr al Din al Houthi was Hussein's father and took control of the al Houthi movement following Hussein's death.

  • Badr al Din was a prominent Zaydi cleric in northern Yemen advocating for Zaydi revivalism

  • Badr al Bin reportedly lived part of his life in Qom, Iran[14]

  • In the mid-1990s, Badr al Din split with other Zaydi scholars who had argued for a change in Zaydi doctrine that would sanction non-Haashimites as the state leader; Badr al Din maintained that only Haashimites should be allowed to hold that position[15]

  • Badr al Din opposed democracy; he advocated for a state ruled by either a Haashimite Zaydi or a pious Muslim[16]

  • Badr al Din led the movement during the second and third installments of fighting, which took place in the spring of 2005 and November 2005-early 2006, respectively

  • In May 2005, Badr al Din rejected a presidential pardon from Saleh[17]

  • Badr al Din al Houthi served primarily as the movement's spiritual guide, and military operations were led by Abdullah Ayed al Ruzami, Abdul Malik al Houthi and Youssuf al Midani[18]

  • Badr al Din died from natural causes on November 25, 2010 at the age of 86.[19] 

Abdullah Ayed al Ruzami

  • Ruzami served in parliament from 1993-1997 (one term) as a member of the al Huqq Party[20]

  • Ruzami led military operations upon Hussein's death, while Badr al Din served as the spiritual and nominal leader

  • Badr al Din and Ruzami both signed a letter to Saleh in May 2005 indicating a willingness to negotiate with Saleh if the state halted its "injustice" in the north, but warned that if "injustice" continued, then fighting would continue[21]

  • Ruzami remained an influential leader even when Abdul Malik al Houthi and Yahya al Houthi took over the movement in February 2006

  • Ruzami participated in the Qatari-brokered peace talks in May 2007[22]

  • Reports of Ruzami's death surfaced in late October 2009;[23] other reports from October 2009 indicate that Ruzami may have defected from the al Houthis to protest the movementís shift away from Hussein Badr al Din al Houthi's original ideology[24]

Al Houthi Family Background

  • Al Houthi family is a prominent Zaydi, Haashimite family[25]

  • Al Houthi family belonged to the elite qadi class prior to the 1962 coup that overthrew the Zaydi imamate; the family lost many of its social privileges with the overthrow of the imamate[26]

  • The family originally hails from the market city of al Houth, which is located on the main road between Sana'a and Sa'ada[27]

  • Badr al Din al Houthi, the father of Hussein, was a prominent Zaydi cleric in Sa'ada province, who advocated for a revival of Zaydism and published many treatises critical of Wahhabism dating back to the 1970s[28]

  • Other members of the family wrote religious books, opened up Zaydi revivalist centers, and proselytized against Wahhabism and for Zaydism

  • Family members have had an active role in leading the al Houthi movement

  • At least one member of the al Houthi family, Abdullah Hussein Badr al Din al Houthi, the son of Hussein, has defected from the insurgency and called on the Yemeni people to stand with the state[29]

 
Current Leadership

Current Leader: Abdul Malik al Houthi

  • Assumed leadership of the al Houthi rebellion by 2006

  • Born in either 1980 or 1981, little is known about his family life, such as whether he has a wife or children[30]

  • In June 2007, Abdul Malik al Houthi announced that his followers would lay down their arms as part of a Qatari-mediated peace settlement[31]

  • Under his leadership, the Jews in northern Yemen were targeted by the rebels; he has reportedly called the Yemeni government an ally of the Americans and of the Jews[32]

  • In his first video statement since the beginning of OPERATION SCORCHED EARTH, Abdul Malik al Houthi vowed to continue the fight against the state, saying the government was waging a war against their culture, and denied any Iranian support[33]

  • Announced the release of southern government soldiers as a tribute to the "heroic positions" of Tariq al Fadhli, reported on September 29, 2009[34] (More information on Yemenís Southern Movement available here.)

  • October 12, 2009, Abdul Malik al Houthi responded to questions via email addressing the insurgency. He reiterated previous assertions and added that there is a possibility for secession[35]

  • Abdul Malik al Houthi has denied any connection between the al Houthi rebels and al Qaeda[36]

  • Yemeni government has repeatedly announced his death, most recently on 12/21/2009 through the Yemen Observer[37]

  • Reported to have turned over the leadership of the rebellion to his brother-in-law, Youssef al Midani, after being severely injured in an air raid on a house in Wadi al Hebal in Sakain district. Three bodyguards were killed in the attack[38]

  • Yemeni government now says he is injured and is in Marran, Sa'ada[39]

  • Abdul Malik al Houthi released a video statement on January 22, 2010 denying any injury or change in leadership[40]

Deputy Leader: Youssef al Midani

  • Brother-in-law of Abdul Malik al Houthi

  • Reportedly wounded in clash on November 17, 2009 that killed two other leaders, Abbas Aida and Abu Haider[41]

  • Distributed leaflets with Abdul Malik's signature that said he was not dead following December 2009 reports[42]

  • During Abdul Malik al Houthi's absence in late December 2009 and early January 2010, security sources reported that al Midani had assumed the leadership position[43] and claimed that he had been named by Abdul Malik al Houthi as the interim leader[44] (Note: If al Midani had assumed leadership without the blessing of Abdul Malik al Houthi, this could indicate dissension within the ranks of the al Houthi rebels. It could be a power-play by al Midani to use the legitimacy gained through his ties to Abdul Malik al Houthi through marriage. Contrarily there is a chance that al Midani never actually assumed the movement's leadership.)

Influential Figure: Yahya al Houthi

  • Yahya al Houthi is the brother of Abdul Malik al Houthi

  • He was a Yemeni MP who fled to Libya, then sought political asylum in Germany after Yemen stripped him of his parliamentary immunity and asked Libya to extradite him in January 2007[45]

  • In May 2007, Yahya al Houthi asked for presidential amnesty for all of those who participated in the violence since 2004, a release of all of the political prisoners, the institution of a new political party that would operate within the already-existing state framework, in addition to the reconstruction of Sa'ada[46]

  • Parliament lifted Yahya al Houthi's immunity again in June 7, 2008[47]

  • He was warned in October 2009 against becoming involved in any activities hostile to any state by Germany. He was also told to be sure to abide by refugee and resident law[48]

  • The Yemeni Parliament has approved the continuation of the removal of his immunity for three months because of his involvement in the northern rebellion[49]

  • The trial of Yahya al Houthi began on October 26, 2009, in absentia, accused of spying for a foreign country. He has also been charged with participation in an armed gang and "planning to assassinate a number of figures including the American ambassador in Sanaa." It is suspected the referenced foreign country is Iran[50]

Spokesman: Mohammed Abdul Salem

  • Little is known about the spokesman himself; the name is most likely a nom de guerre for one or more people

  • He is the only named spokesman for the al Houhi rebels

  • Saudi sources identified Mohammed Abdul Salam as Hamid Badr al Din al Houthi, the brother of Abdul Malik al Houthi[51]

  • On January 2, 2010, Mohammed Abdul Salam said that the al Houthi rebels would comply with the terms laid out by Saleh if the government addresses their demands, too[52]

 
Objectives:
  • Father of Hussein Badr al Din al Houthi, Badr al Din al Houthi, claimed that Hussein's objective was simply to defend Islam

  • In 2009, the exiled Yahya al Houthi stated that the al Houthi rebels sought the "demise" of the Saleh regime[53]

  • Al Houthis deny intentions of reestablishing the imamate, but former spiritual leader Badr al Din al Houthi advocated for this[54]

  • Al Houthis currently call for autonomy, justifying it on the basis of Saleh's propagation of Wahhabism, social and economic marginalization, Sana'a's close ties with Washington, and government despotism and corruption[55]

 
Strongholds:
  • An al Houthi presence exists throughout Sa'ada and Amran provinces; a partial presence exists in al Jawf and al Hajjah provinces.

  • Government reports that it is 60% through operations to put down the rebellion[56]

Al Jawf:

  • Tribesmen in al Jawf are generally pro-government and have taken up arms against the rebels. Recent clashes have occurred in al Matamah district[57]

  • Pro-government tribes include al Sagra and al Abu Hussein[58]

Sa'ada Province:

  • Described as a "rebel stronghold" and home to Abdul Malik al Houthi[59]

Sa'ada City:

  • Operation "Blow to the Head": clearance operation in the old city of Sa'ada, sweeping house-to-house, according the government website[60]

Al Jabiri:

  • Saudi army has been fighting against the rebels for control over this border town. Saudi Arabia reports that all rebels have been eliminated from al Jabiri and the entire district is now under control[61]

Al Malahaidh district:

  • Includes Jebel al Dud, which is an al Houthi stronghold. Yemeni troops have conducted recent operations in the district to clear the mountainous areas[62]


[1] "Yemeni Shi'ite Cleric and Houthi Disciple 'Issam al-'Imad: Our Leader Houthi is Close to Khamenei; We are Influence Religiously and Ideologically by Iran," MEMRI, November 2, 2009. Available: http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/3757.htm
[2] "Al-Shabab al-Mum'en / Shabab al-Moumineen (Believing Youth)," Global Security.org. Available: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/shabab-al-moumineen.htm. See also: Iris Glosemeyer and Don Reneau, "Local Conflict, Global Spin: An Uprising in the Yemen Highlands," Middle East Report, No. 232 (Autumn 2004), pp. 44-46.
[3] "Yemen: Defusing the Saada Time Bomb," International Crisis Group, Middle East Report, No. 86, May 27, 2009. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/middle_east___north_africa/iraq_iran_gulf/86_yemen___defusing_the_saada_time_bomb.pdf
[4] "Yemen: Defusing the Saada Time Bomb," International Crisis Group, Middle East Report, No. 86, May 27, 2009. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/middle_east___north_africa/iraq_iran_gulf/86_yemen___defusing_the_saada_time_bomb.pdf
[5] "Yemen: Defusing the Saada Time Bomb," International Crisis Group, Middle East Report, No. 86, May 27, 2009. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/middle_east___north_africa/iraq_iran_gulf/86_yemen___defusing_the_saada_time_bomb.pdf
[6] "Yemeni Forces Kill Rebel Cleric," BBC, September 10, 2004. Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/middle_east/3643600.stm
[7] "Yemeni Forces Kill Rebel Cleric," BBC, September 10, 2004. Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/middle_east/3643600.stm
[8] "Yemen: Defusing the Saada Time Bomb," International Crisis Group, Middle East Report, No. 86, May 27, 2009. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/middle_east___north_africa/iraq_iran_gulf/86_yemen___defusing_the_saada_time_bomb.pdf
[9] "Yemen: Defusing the Saada Time Bomb," International Crisis Group, Middle East Report, No. 86, May 27, 2009. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/middle_east___north_africa/iraq_iran_gulf/86_yemen___defusing_the_saada_time_bomb.pdf. See also:
"Al-Shabab al-Mum'en / Shabab al-Moumineen (Believing Youth)," Global Security.org.  Available: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/shabab-al-moumineen.htm
[10] Iris Glosemeyer and Don Reneau, "Local Conflict, Global Spin: An Uprising in the Yemen Highlands," Middle East Report, No. 232 (Autumn 2004), pp. 44-46
[11] "Yemen Kills Cleric's Followers, Offers Reward," Sydney Morning Herald, July 11, 2004. Available: http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/07/10/1089000402822.html
[12] "Yemeni Forces Kill Rebel Cleric," BBC, September 10, 2004. Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/middle_east/3643600.stm
[13] "Yemeni Shi'ite Cleric and Houthi Disciple 'Issam al-'Imad: Our Leader Houthi is Close to Khamenei; We are Influence Religiously and Ideologically by Iran," MEMRI, November 2, 2009. Available: http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/3757.htm
[14] "Yemeni Shi'ite Cleric and Houthi Disciple 'Issam al-'Imad: Our Leader Houthi is Close to Khamenei; We are Influence Religiously and Ideologically by Iran," MEMRI, November 2, 2009. Available: http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/3757.htm
[15] "Yemen: Defusing the Saada Time Bomb," International Crisis Group, Middle East Report, No. 86, May 27, 2009. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/middle_east___north_africa/iraq_iran_gulf/86_yemen___defusing_the_saada_time_bomb.pdf
[16] Arthur Bright, "Yemen's President Warns Rebels to Disarm," Christian Science Monitor, January 30, 2007. Available: http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0130/p99s01-duts.html
[17] Nasser Arrabyee, ìRebellion Continues,î Al Ahram Weekly, May 19-25, 2005. Available: http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/743/re10.htm
[18] "Al-Shabab al-Mum'en / Shabab al-Moumineen (Believing Youth)," Global Security.org. Available: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/shabab-al-moumineen.htm
[19] "Death of the First Shiite Cleric to Houthis," Yemen Online, November 25, 2010. Available: http://yemenonline.info/news-1691.html
"Yemen Car Bomb Attack on Rebel Convoy Kills Two," Reuters, November 26, 2010. Available: http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/LDE6AP0XR.htm
[20] "Yemen: Defusing the Saada Time Bomb," International Crisis Group, Middle East Report, No. 86, May 27, 2009. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/middle_east___north_africa/iraq_iran_gulf/86_yemen___defusing_the_saada_time_bomb.pdf
[21] Nasser Arrabyee, "Rebellion Continues," Al Ahram Weekly, May 19-25, 2005. Available: http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/743/re10.htm
[22] Nasser Arrabyee, "Yemen Rebellion Drawing to End," Al Ahram Weekly, June 21-27, 2009. Available: http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2007/850/re11.htm
[23] Nasser Arrabyee, "OIC Supports Yemen Against al Houthi Rebels," Nasser Arrabyee Blog, November 1, 2009. Available: http://narrabyee-e.blogspot.com/2009_10_01_archive.html
[24] "Army denies murder of Houthi rebel leader al-Ruzami," News Yemen, October 31, 2009. Available: http://www.newsyemen.net/en/view_news.asp?sub_no=3_2009_10_31_7945
[25] Gregory Johnsen, "The Sixth War," The National, November 12, 2009. Available: http://www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20091112/REVIEW/711129992/1008
[26] "Yemen: Defusing the Saada Time Bomb," International Crisis Group, Middle East Report, No. 86, May 27, 2009. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/middle_east___north_africa/iraq_iran_gulf/86_yemen___defusing_the_saada_time_bomb.pdf
[27] Gregory Johnsen, "The Sixth War," The National, November 12, 2009. Available: http://www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20091112/REVIEW/711129992/1008
[28] "Yemen: Defusing the Saada Time Bomb," International Crisis Group, Middle East Report, No. 86, May 27, 2009. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/middle_east___north_africa/iraq_iran_gulf/86_yemen___defusing_the_saada_time_bomb.pdf
[29] Nasser Arrayee, "28 Al Houthi Rebels Killed in Fresh Clashes," Gulf News, October 1, 2009. Available: http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/yemen/28-al-houthi-rebels-killed-in-fresh-clashes-1.511934
[30] Hamida Ghafour, "Rebel Without a Clear Cause," The National, August 21, 2009. Available: http://www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090822/WEEKENDER/708219838
[31] "Yemen Rebels Agree To State-Proposed Truce," Reuters, June 16, 2007. Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSL16515275._CH_.2400
[32] Jeremy Sharp, "Yemen: Background and U.S. Relations," Congressional Research Service, July 17, 2009. Available: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA503177&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
[33] "Yemen Rebels Vow to Continue Fight," Al Jazeera, September 28, 2009. Available: http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2009/09/2009927191230452203.html
[34] Hammoud Mounassar, "Yemen Troops Pound Northern Rebels with Artillery," AFP, September 29, 2009. Available: http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gTJQKwa06WhkC0bttXml_dQqM7mw
[35] "Yemen's Rebel Leader Says Secession Possible," al Arabiya, October 12, 2009. Available: http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2009/10/12/87840.html
[36] Nasser Arrabyee, "More Then 14 al-Houthi Rebels Killed," Yemen Observer, November 11, 2009. Available: http://www.yobserver.com/local-news/10017574.html
[37] Abdul-Aziz Oudah and Nasser Arrabyee, "Abdul-Malik al-Houthi Takes Final Breath," Yemen Observer, December 21, 2009. Available: http://www.yobserver.com/front-page/10017792.html
[38] Abdul-Aziz Oudah and Nasser Arrabyee, "Abdul-Malik al-Houthi Takes Final Breath," Yemen Observer, December 21, 2009. Available: http://www.yobserver.com/front-page/10017792.html
[39] "Rebel Leader Injured, Not Killed: Senior Yemeni Official," Saba News, January 19, 2010. Available: http://www.sabanews.net/en/news203523.htm
[40] "Al Houthi Appears in Video to Deny his Death," News Yemen, January 22, 2010. Available: http://www.newsyemen.net/view_news.asp?sub_no=1_2010_01_22_40818
[41] "Yemen Says Has Killed Two Rebel Leaders in Clash," Reuters, November 18, 2009. Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSLI556128
[42] Zaid al-Alaya'a and Nasser Arrabyee, "In a Slip of the Tongue, Abdul-Malik al-Houthi Confirmed Dead," Yemen Observer, December 27, 2009. Available: http://www.yobserver.com/front-page/10017828.html
[43] Nasser Arrabyee, "Top Leader of Rebels Died and Buried," Yemen Observer, December 27, 2009. Available: http://www.yobserver.com/local-news/10017842.html
[44] Mohammed Ghobari, "Yemen Shi'ite Rebel Leader Alive, but Wounded," Reuters, January 19, 2010. Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE60H1MP20100119
[45] "Brother of Yemen Rebel Leader Stripped of Immunity," Reuters, February 28, 2007. Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSL28714920
[46] Mohammed Sudam, "Yemen President Says Will Consider Rebel Demands," Reuters, May 22, 2007. Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSL22310828._CH_.2400
[47] Hakim Almasmari, "Bani Hushaish Houthi Resurrection Ends; Parliament Remove Immunity of Yahya al-Houthi," Yemen Post, June 9, 2008. Available: http://www.yemenpost.net/33/LocalNews/20081.htm
[48] "Germany Warns al-Houthi, Prepares to Deport Yemenis," al Sahwa, October 12, 2009. Available: http://www.alsahwanet.net/view_nnews.asp?sub_no=402_2009_10_12_73437
[49] Abdul-Aziz Oudah, "Yemeni Parliament Withdraw al-Houthi's Legislative Immunity," Yemen Observer, October 12, 2009. Available: http://www.yobserver.com/local-news/10017390.html
[50] "Yemen Starts Trial of Northern Rebel Leader in Abstentia," Reuters, October 26, 2009. Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSLQ35901._CH_.2400
[51] "The Spokesman of Houthis Mohammed Abdul Salam is Hamid Badr Eddin Al-Houthi: a Saudi Source," Yemen Post, November 20, 2009. Available: http://www.yemenpost.net/Detail123456789.aspx?ID=3&SubID=1602&MainCat=3
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[53] "Yemen: Defusing the Saada Time Bomb," International Crisis Group, Middle East Report, No. 86, May 27, 2009. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/middle_east___north_africa/iraq_iran_gulf/86_yemen___defusing_the_saada_time_bomb.pdf
[54] Arthur Bright, "Yemen's President Warns Rebels to Disarm," Christian Science Monitor, January 30, 2007. Available: http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0130/p99s01-duts.html
[55] "Yemen Says Takes Rebel Leaders, Rebels Show Captives," Reuters, September 24, 2009. Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSLO344543._CH_.2400
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[57] Nasser Arrabyee, "More Than 16 Rebels, 4 Tribesmen Killed," Yemen Observer, January 9, 2010. Available: http://www.yobserver.com/local-news/10017918.html
[59] "Rebel Leader Injured, Not Killed: Senior Yemeni Official," Saba News, January 19, 2010. Available: http://www.sabanews.net/en/news203523.htm
[60] "Yemen Forces Kill 19 Shi'ite Rebels, Arrest 25," Reuters, January 12, 2010. Available: http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKTRE60B16C20100112
[61] "Saudi Troops Retake Village from Yemen Houthi Rebels," BBC, January 12, 2010. Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8454746.stm
[62] "Army Clears Areas Near al Uqab, Controls the Areas Near al-Dood Mountain," Al Motomar, January 17, 2010. Available: http://www.almotamar.net/en/7168.htm
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