Libyan port city of Benghazi, now controlled by opposition forces (photo by Dennixo, available at Wikimedia Commons).

March 24, 2011

Libya Conflict: U.S. and Coalition Operations And Statements

Last Updated: May 27, 2011 at 1300 EST.

Daily updates for Libya have currently been discontinued. The Libya operations tracker continues to be updated on a daily basis at the Institute for the Study of War. You can access the full tracker HERE.


MAY 27: Russia has shifted its position on Libya and now believes Qaddafi has lost the legitimacy to rule and should leave power. Russia has offered to mediate a ceasefire and negotiate his departure with senior members of Qaddafi’s inner-circle. The pivot in Russian policy comes after a meeting between President Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev Russian at the G8 summit in France. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin has been highly critical of the NATO bombing campaign and Medvedev’s earlier decision to not veto the U.N Security Council resolution authorizing the allied action. After Medvedev’s decision, Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov said, "Colonel Gaddafi has deprived himself of legitimacy with his actions, we should help him leave.” (New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, Reuters, Reuters, Al-Jazeera)

MAY 27: The G8 nations announced in their joint summit communiqué that Qaddafi had no future role in a democratic Libya and the group demanded the regime’s forces cease their attacks against civilians. The communiqué stated that those behind the killing of civilians would be investigated and punished. (Reuters)

MAY 27: British officials cleared the use of attack helicopters in Libya on Thursday. British officials have said that the addition of British Apaches and French Tiger helicopters into the battle will allow for low-level, precision attacks on urban targets, including Libyan officials. In a shift, the helicopters will be operated under NATO command instead of national command, NATO officials said that four Apache attack helicopters were available from the assault ship HMS Ocean as well as four Tigers aboard the French helicopter carrier Tonnerre. (New York Times, Reuters, BBC)

MAY 27: President Obama, on a visit to France for the G8 summit, said that the United States and France were in full agreement on the NATO campaign in Libya until the crisis there is resolved. Obama reaffirmed his commitment to the mission, saying, “"We are joined in resolve to finish the job.” (New York Times)

MAY 27: Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said there is a broad consensus among G8 leaders that Qaddafi’s regime is falling apart. Berlusconi said, "We spoke almost entirely about the Libyan situation at dinner and it's everyone's opinion that the regime is imploding.” (Reuters)

MAY 26: Deputy National Security Advisor Ben Rhodes said that Qaddafi’s offer of a ceasefire and negotiations with the rebels must be backed up by action and the White House immediately rejected the proposal as not being credible. Rhodes said that Qaddafi’s government is not complying with a Security Council resolution intended to protect the Libyan people. NATO warplanes conducted at least four more airstrikes in the area around Qaddafi’s compound in central Tripoli on Thursday night.  (Washington Post)

MAY 26: According to British intelligence sources, Qaddafi has responded to the NATO airstrikes on his compound by seeking sanctuary at night in Tripoli’s hospitals, which he knows the alliance will not bomb.  

MAY 26: NATO aircraft conducted 140 sorties on May 26, of which 54 were designated strikes sorties. NATO warplanes struck the following targets: In Tripoli: 1 Armored Vehicle Storage Facility. In the vicinity of Tripoli: 1 Surface-To-Air Missile Storage Facility, 2 Command & Control Nodes. In the vicinity of Sirte: 1 Ammunition Storage Facility, 1 Command & Control Node. In the vicinity of Zuwarah: 1 Ammunition Storage Site and 4 Aircrafts in an Airfield. In the vicinity of Misrata: 1 Rocket Launcher, 3 Self-Propelled Artillery Pieces, 1 Truck-Mounted Gun. In the vicinity of Al Khums: 1 Surface-To-Air Missile Launcher. In the vicinity of Hun: 1 Ammunition Storage Facility. At sea, 10 vessels were hailed, three were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 26: French Foreign Minister Alain Juppé has said that France is seeking to hurry Qaddafi’s downfall by targeting loyalist military installations in Tripoli and other areas more precisely with attack helicopters and reach out to anti-regime dissidents in Tripoli. Juppé said France's goal was to convince Qaddafi to leave power and to finish military operations in Libya within the next three months. Juppé also said France regretted that the United States has not taken on a large role in the conflict. (Wall Street Journal)

MAY 25: A leaked document created for the Libyan Investment Authority by a management consulting firm provides a detailed view into how Libya invested its oil revenue after international sanctions against the country were lifted in 2006. The internal document shows that Libya’s sovereign wealth fund had about $56 billion in assets invested around the world, including more than $1 billion in U.S. Treasury bills. Major Western banks, hedge funds and private investment firms including HSBC and Goldman Sachs took in hundreds of millions in deposits. Libya also held shares in global corporations such as General Electric, BP, Vivendi and Deutsche Telekom. Since February 2011, U.S. Treasury officials have frozen about $37 billion of the Libyan funds. (Washington Post, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, BBC,

MAY 25: The Libyan government is floating a proposal to have Qaddafi remain as a figurehead leader who would ensure the country’s transition to democracy.  Qaddafi officials appear to be pushing the possibility of Qaddafi remaining in power on the hopes that Western resolve to ouster Qaddafi weakens and that NATO cannot sustain its bombing campaign indefinitely. The Spanish government said that it has received a proposal from Libyan Prime Minister Al-Baghdadi al-Mahmoudi for an immediate cease-fire. African leaders have demanded an outright end to NATO’s air campaign, accusing the West of sidelining the African Union in efforts to end the conflict. (LA Times, Reuters, Associated Press, AFP)

MAY 25: Niger confirmed a deal with Libya's blacklisted Green Network for a 10-year majority share in the state telecommunications firm Sonitel and its mobile arm, Sahel Com. Green Network is part of the Libyan African Investment Portfolio, which has been targeted by U.N. sanctions. (Reuters)

MAY 25: Lawmakers from both parties have accused President Obama of violating the War Powers Resolution by having the American military continue participation in NATO’s air campaign in Libya without Congressional authorization. (New York Times, The Hill)

MAY 25: NATO aircraft conducted 136 sorties on May 25, of which 42 were designated strikes sorties. NATO warplanes struck the following targets: In Tripoli: 1 Military Vehicle Storage Facility. In the vicinity of Nalut: 1 Armored Vehicle Storage Area, 1 Helicopter. In the vicinity of Sirte: 1 Ammunition Storage Facility, 1 Command & Control Node, 1 Military Vehicle. In the vicinity of Mizdah: 1 Surface-To-Air Missile Launcher. At sea, 11 vessels were hailed, two were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 25: NATO aircraft conducted 149 sorties on May 24, of which 56 were designated strikes sorties. NATO warplanes struck the following targets: In Tripoli: 1 Armored Vehicle Storage Facility. In the vicinity of Tripoli: 1 Missile Storage and Maintenance Facility, 1 Command & Control Node. In the vicinity of Sirte: 1 Ammunition Storage Facility. In the vicinity of Zuwarah: 1 Ammunition Storage Facility. In the vicinity of Misrata: 3 Self-Propelled Artillery Pieces, 1 Command & Control Node, 4 Military Vehicles. In the vicinity of Brega: 1 Command & Control Node. In the vicinity of Al Khums: 1 Missile Storage and Maintenance Facility, 1 Command & Control Node. At sea, 14 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 25: President Obama and Prime Minister David Cameron expressed their solidarity on their strategy in Libya on the final day of Obama’s state visit to the United Kingdom. Obama and Cameron agreed to rule out deploying ground forces to Libya, but said they would continue operations and pressure on Qaddafi until he ceased attacking his own people. They also repeated their positions that Qaddafi must leave power. Further, Obama said that the military campaign in Libya is "going to be a slow steady process" in which Qaddafi is slowly worn down and there were no “artificial” timetables for U.S. forces to pullback. British officials have been frustrated by Obama’s decision not to expand its military commitment to allied operations in Libya. (New York Times, Washington Post, BBC, Wall Street Journal, LA Times)

MAY 25: NATO warplanes struck targets in Tripoli for a second day in a row, with explosions heard around Qaddafi’s Bab al-Aziziya compound in the center of the city. A NATO official said the allied bombs had hit a vehicle storage bunker, a missile storage site and a command and control site in the vicinity of Tripoli. (Reuters, BBC)

MAY 24: NATO officials have claimed that two-months into operations the alliance remains short on reconnaissance and refueling aircraft to allow allied warplanes to identify hostile targets and conduct longer range missions. NATO planners have said that intelligence on Libyan forces filters up through the CIA, Special Forces and the rebels; they are not in direct contact with anyone on the ground to help coordinate the roughly 50 airstrikes conducted every day.  Admiral Locklear said that the alliance had largely achieved its goal of protecting civilians. Locklear said Qaddafi will never be able to turn a large army on his people again because it has largely been destroyed and the air campaign has wiped out over half of Libya’s ammunition stockpiles and cut off his forces’ supply lines. Nevertheless, Locklear acknowledged Qaddafi’s resiliency and said the military aspect of the campaign would take a “very long time” without sustained political and economic pressure. (New York Times)

MAY 24: The Obama administration has asked the Senate Foreign Relations Committee to draft a bill to take about $150 million in frozen Libyan assets and put it to use as humanitarian aid for the NTC. The bill, however, faces strong opposition from Senator Richard Lugar who has voiced concerns about the administration’s policies in Libya and the effects of taking funds another sovereign nation, as the United States still recognizes the Qaddafi regime. (Washington Post)

MAY 24: British Armed Forces Minister Nick Harvey stated that the United Kingdom has made no decision to deploy attack helicopters to Libya, but dismissed claims that such an escalation would amount to mission creep, suggesting the use of helicopters was a tactical shift. British officials have reportedly expressed frustration that French officials announced Britain’s military plans before they had received ministerial approval or notified Parliament. (AFP)

MAY 24: Libyan Oil Minister Shokri Ghanem has not defected, contrary to widespread reports when he showed up in Tunisia last week. Rather, Ghanem is quietly working to maintain Qaddafi’s ties with large international oil companies. (Reuters)

MAY 24: South African President Jacob Zuma announced he would visit Tripoli on May 30th in his capacity as a leader of the African Union for peace talks with Qaddafi. (Reuters, Al-Jazeera)

MAY 24: NATO warplanes struck at least 15 targets in central Tripoli in some of the heaviest bombing of the capital in the two-month allied air campaign. The airstrikes were concentrated around Qaddafi’s compound in Tripoli which has been repeatedly struck by NATO in the past few weeks. Libyan officials said the strikes hit empty housing units of an auxiliary military force called the Popular Guard, but that bombs also struck a nearby neighborhood killing three and wounding 150 civilians. NATO said it hit a vehicle storage facility being used to resupply regime forces. Many of the buildings struck by the alliance appear to have been empty.  (New York Times, Washington Post, Reuters, NATO, Al-Jazeera)

MAY 24: French Defense Minister Gérard Longuet announced that Britain and France would deploy attack helicopters to Libya as soon as possible. The introduction of British and French helicopter gunships, while giving allied air commanders more flexibility to strike at government targets than high-flying warplanes, would also be a marked escalation by the alliance. The British have said the use of attack helicopters is under consideration but no final decision has been made. British Apache helicopters would be able to deploy from the HMS Ocean which is already off the Libyan coast. The French are planning to deploy at least 12 Tiger and Gazelle helicopters from the Tonnerre. (New York Times, Wall Street Journal, BBC, Guardian)

MAY 24: Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called for some allies to contribute more military resources to NATO’s military campaign in order to maintain the pressure on Qaddafi. While Clinton did not specify which allies were the targets of her criticism, the United States has been pressing Spain to contribute forces to the mission. The United States has not indicated it has plans to expand its military role in the conflict, Secretary Clinton said that U.S. aircraft continue to fly a quarter of the sorties over Libya and provides the majority of the intelligence and surveillance for the operation. Clinton also said that time is working against Qaddafi and he cannot re-establish control over Libya, and as the opposition military forces improve and Qaddafi “inevitably” leaves power, a new Libya will be ready to move forward. (Wall Street Journal, Reuters)

MAY 24: Jordan has extended official diplomatic recognition to the rebel government and announced plans to open an office in Benghazi. (Reuters)

MAY 24: In a letter published Tuesday, President Obama and Prime Minister David Cameron pledged to keep the pressure on Qaddafi until he fully complied with U.N. Security Council resolutions. (Reuters, 10 Downing Street)

MAY 24: French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe said that the NATO campaign in Libya was making progress and should achieve its objectives within “a few months.” (Reuters)

MAY 24: The rebel government is set to send an official representative to Washington after an invitation by U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Jeffrey Feltman because the United States is no longer in communication with the Qaddafi government. The move, however, does not amount to official diplomatic recognition of the NTC. (Reuters, BBC, Washington Post)

MAY 23: In a move to comply with the 60-day deadline for presidents under the War Powers Resolution to seek congressional approval on military deployments which passed last week, a bipartisan group of senior lawmakers introduced a resolution in the Senate backing President Barack Obama's military deployment in Libya, which would give the White House its first congressional approval for the conflict. (Politico)

MAY 23: NATO aircraft conducted 149 sorties on May 23, of which 52 were designated strikes sorties. NATO warplanes struck the following targets: In Tripoli: 1 Armored Vehicle Storage Facility. In the vicinity of Sirte: 1 Ammunition Storage Facility, 1 Command & Control Node. In the vicinity of Sebha: 1 Military Equipment Maintenance & Storage Facility. In the vicinity of Misrata: 2 Truck-Mounted Guns. At sea, 7 vessels were hailed, two were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 23: France plans to deploy twelve attack helicopters in Libya as part of the NATO-led operation against the Qaddafi regime. The twelve helicopters were dispatched to Libya on the French amphibious assault helicopter carrier Tonnerre on May 17. According to a diplomatic source, "It is not just French helicopters ... its coordinated action by the coalition…It is at the NATO level.” While attack helicopters would allow the alliance to better target Qaddafi’s forces in dense urban environments than fixed-wing aircraft that fly much higher, they would be much more vulnerable to ground fire. The helicopters are reportedly to be used in conjunction with French Special Forces units that have been on the ground in Libya since the start of coalition operations in March. The British MOD said it had no plans to deploy attack helicopters. NATO has refused to confirm or deny any reports. (Reuters, BBC)

MAY 23: Russian Foreign Minister Segei Lavrov is planning to meet Monday with members of the NTC as Moscow continues to press for a ceasefire between the rebels and Qaddafi. (AFP,

MAY 23: Jeffrey Feltman, Assistant Secretary of State for the Near East, arrived in Benghazi to meet leaders of the NTC. Feltman is the most senior U.S. diplomat to visit Libya since the uprising began, during his three-day visit he will meet with the NTC head Mustafa Abdul-Jalil and other rebel leaders. (Reuters, AFP, Associated Press)

MAY 22: A small fleet of rebel ships delivering weapons from Benghazi to the besieged city of Misrata has been sailing with NATO’s support and approval. (New York Times)

MAY 22: The European Union opened an office in Benghazi. Catherine Ashton, High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy for the EU, opened the office and said the rebel government represented the aspirations of the Libyan people and the EU would provide support for Libyan institutions and the economy. (BBC, Wall Street Journal)

MAY 22: NATO aircraft conducted 138 sorties on May 22, of which 50 were designated strikes sorties. NATO warplanes struck the following targets: In the vicinity of Tripoli: 1 Command & Control Node. In the vicinity of Al Khums: 1 Missile Support Facility. In the vicinity of Sirte: 1 Ammunition Storage Facility. In the vicinity of Brega: 1 Command & Control Node. At sea, 16 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 21: NATO warplanes struck Qaddafi’s compound in Tripoli. Libyan officials would not comment on what was struck. (Wall Street Journal)

MAY 21: NATO aircraft conducted 147 sorties on May 21, of which 49 were designated strikes sorties. NATO warplanes struck the following targets: In Tripoli: 1 Command & Control Facility. In the vicinity of Tripoli: 1 Command & Control Facility, 1 Ammunition Storage Facility. In Sirte: 1 Naval Asset. In the vicinity of Al Khums: 2 Land-Based Air Defense Radars. In the vicinity of Zintan: 1 Tank, 1 Military Logistics Truck. At sea, 10 vessels were hailed, none were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 20: President Obama sent a letter to Congressional leaders late Friday, in which he defended the Libya operation and expressed his support for legislation authorizing the deployment. The letter said, “Congressional action in support of the mission would underline the U.S. commitment to this remarkable international effort…Such a resolution is also important in the context of our constitutional framework, as it would demonstrate a unity of purpose among the political branches on this important national security matter… Since April 4, U.S. participation has consisted of: non-kinetic support to the NATO-led operation, including intelligence, logistical support, and search and rescue assistance; (2) aircraft that have assisted in the suppression and destruction of air defenses in support of the no-fly zone; and (3) since April 23, precision strikes by unmanned aerial vehicles against a limited set of clearly defined targets in support of the NATO-led coalition’s efforts.” (New York Times, Politico)

MAY 20: NATO aircraft conducted 157 sorties on May 20, of which 58 were designated strikes sorties. NATO warplanes struck the following targets: In the vicinity of Tripoli: 1 Command & Control Node, 1 Armoured Vehicle Storage Facility. In the vicinity of Sebha: 1 Command & Control Node. In the vicinity of Sirte: 1 Ammunition Storage Facility, 3 Surface-To-Air Missile Launchers. In the vicinity of Zintan: 3 Rocket Launchers. At sea, 10 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 20: NATO aircraft conducted 166 sorties on May 19, of which 60 were designated strikes sorties. NATO warplanes struck the following targets: In the vicinity of Tripoli: 1 Command & Control Facility, 5 Naval Assets. In the vicinity of Zuwarah: 2 Command & Control Nodes. In the vicinity of Al Khums: 2 Naval Assets, 1 Rocket Launcher. In the vicinity of Mizdah: 1 Ammunition Storage Facility, 2 Rocket Launcher, 1 Military Technical Vehicle, 1 Military Logistic Vehicle. In the vicinity of Sebha: 1 Military Storage Facility. In the vicinity of Sirte: 1 Naval Asset, 4 Command & Control Nodes. In the vicinity of Brega: 2 Military Technical Vehicles. At sea, 14 vessels were hailed, two were boarded, and two were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 18: U.S. and European officials indicated this week that NATO airstrikes against regime sites including military headquarters had become more aggressive. While some U.S. and NATO officials insist the alliance has stayed within its mandate to protect civilians by the strikes, other officials have said there is a conscious effort by NATO to strike places Qaddafi is thought to be taking shelter and the Obama administration has been privately supporting the effort. A European official said that one explanation for the intensified strikes against Qaddafi and regime targets in Tripoli is that NATO is running out of potential command and control targets and is going deeper into its target list. NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen stated that military and political pressure on Qaddafi was weakening his regime and would eventually topple him. Rasmussen said, "We have significantly degraded Gaddafi's war machine. And now we see results, the opposition has gained ground…I am confident that combination of strong military pressure and increased political pressure and support for the opposition will eventually lead to the collapse of the regime." (Reuters, Reuters)

MAY 18: Sources in the Tunisian security forces have said that Muammar Qaddafi’s wife and daughter crossed into Tunisia on May 14 with a Libyan delegation and have been staying at the southern island of Djerba near the border. It is unclear whether the women were on a diplomatic mission or seeking to defect. Rebel sources have said the women were in Tunisia to accompany Aisha Qaddafi’s husband, who had reportedly been injured in the conflict and was seeking treatment in Tunisia. The Tunisian Interior Ministry, however, has denied that any members of the Qaddafi family are in the country. (Reuters)

MAY 18: Four journalists who had been detained for weeks by Libyan security forces were released after being found guilty of entering Libya without visas. The group, including two Americans, a Spaniard and a Briton, were freed after they received a commuted prison sentence and paid a $150 fine. (Washington Post, New York Times)

MAY 18: NATO aircraft conducted 159 sorties on May 18, of which 53 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Tripoli, a military training facility was destroyed. Near Zuwarah, three command and control nodes were destroyed and around Misrata, two tanks and one self-propelled artillery piece were destroyed. Around Mizdah, an ammunition storage facility was destroyed. At sea, 14 vessels were hailed, two were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 18: Libya is expected to receive an oil tanker from Turkey at the port refinery of Zawiyah this weekend, in a sign that Qaddafi’s government is able to secure vital supplies of refined fuel such as gasoline despite international sanctions. The Libyan-flagged tanker 'Cartagena' has a capacity to carry around 30,000 tons of fuel and was heading towards Libya from the Turkish port of Mersin. The tanker is owned by the Libyan state-owned company General National Maritime Transport Company which is not on the UN sanctions list but is controlled by one of Qaddafi’s sons. (Reuters)

MAY 18: Panos Moumtzis, the U.N. special envoy to Libya, is negotiating with Libya's government, rebels and NATO for a “humanitarian pause” for 24 to 72 hours to allow humanitarian supplies to reach civilians. Moumtzis was also seeking security guarantees from Qaddafi’s government so U.N. aid workers could reach civilians in Misrata and the Western Mountains, where it could evacuate trapped migrants and wounded. Moumtzis insisted his objectives were not political and he was not negotiating a cease fire. (Reuters)

MAY 18: The cost of British military operations over Libya has reached £100m. The cost of British involvement has far exceeded original estimates provided by Chancellor George Osborne at the start of the air campaign when he estimated the cost would be "modest" compared to British operations in Afghanistan and be in the order of tens of millions of pounds—not hundreds. The British military has been strained in recent years by severe budget cuts, nevertheless, Defence Secretary Liam Fox said NATO airstrikes would not end until Qaddafi stopped “slaughtering” his own people. Britain has some 23 RAF aircraft and two Royal Navy warships committed to operations in Libya. (BBC)

MAY 18: Canada expelled five Libyan diplomats for engaging in activities deemed "inappropriate and inconsistent" with diplomatic duties. The Canadian government also suspended operations at its embassy in Tripoli, but has not broken diplomatic relations with the Qaddafi regime. The Canadian government also ordered 1,300 500-pound Paveway GBU-12 bombs to replace stocks depleted in airstrikes on Libya. Canadian aircraft have flown some 300 sorties since March and is one of the few NATO countries conducting airstrikes. Canada has 560 troops deployed to Operation Unified Protector, which includes a naval frigate, seven CF-18 fighter aircraft, two Aurora surveillance aircraft and two refueling planes. Canada's military commitment in Libya is scheduled to end June 16, but the Canadian government is expected to extent it. (Reuters, Wall Street Journal, UPI)

MAY 18: Nine suspected al-Qaeda in the Maghreb (AQIM) members opened fire on Tunisian security forces on Wednesday, killing four officers at a checkpoint near the northern town of Rouhia. The men were reportedly Tunisian, Algerian and Libya. The attack comes at a time when Arab and Western officials have warned AQIM could be exploiting the instability in Libya to acquire weapons and smuggle them to other North African countries. Tunisian security forces detained two individuals on Sunday suspected of being members of al-Qaeda in the Maghreb near the Libyan border; they were carrying an explosives belt and a bomb. (Reuters)

MAY 17: NATO aircraft conducted 159 sorties on May 17, of which 53 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Tripoli, two tanks, two armored personnel carriers, two surface-to-air missile launchers, one fire control radar and a target acquisition radar were destroyed. Near Misrata, one command and control bunker, one rocket launcher, and six truck-mounted guns were destroyed. At sea, 13 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 17: The British Ministry of Defence said its warplanes struck a training base used by bodyguards for Qaddafi’s inner circle and two buildings belonging to the Libyan intelligence agency in overnight air raids on Tripoli. The attacks were conducted by Tornado aircraft and Tomahawk missiles fired from the HMS Triumph. One of the intelligence facilities hit played a significant role collecting intelligence for Qaddafi’s secret police. The other intelligence building was the headquarters of Libya's External Security Organization. The training base that was attacked was belonged to Qaddafi’s “Executive Protection Force”, which guards Qaddafi’s inner circle. Vehicles at the base had been identified as having been used in attacking protestors in Tripoli on March 4. The targets appeared to indicate the British were broadening their military operations which had been limited to hitting Libyan weapons and command and control systems. (Reuters, al-Jazeera, Washington Post)

MAY 17: Russia called on Qaddafi to stop attacking civilians as part of Moscow’s efforts to secure a cease-fire between Qaddafi’s forces and the rebels. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said Russian officials told Qaddafi diplomat who travelled to Moscow that Libya must comply with the U.N. Security Council resolutions and withdraw its forces from cities. Russia is set to host talks this week between representatives from Qaddafi’s government and the rebel government. (Reuters, BBC)

MAY 17: The spokeswoman for the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees said that Libyan officials appear to be encouraging African migrants make the dangerous journey across the Mediterranean to Europe in unseaworthy boats. The immigration route between Libya and Italy has been largely closed for two years since an agreement between the two countries. In the past two months however, some 14,000 mostly from sub-Saharan African migrants have used Libya as a springboard to reach Europe. European officials are worried that more refugees will make the journey as weather conditions in the Mediterranean improve in the coming weeks. (Associated Press)

MAY 17: The Tunisian Interior Ministry announced the defection of Libyan Oil Minister Shukri Ghanem, who fled to Tunisia over the weekend. Ghanem, the chairman of Libya’s National Oil Corporation and a former prime minister, arrived in Tunisia on Saturday. (New York Times)

MAY 16: According to NATO, the naval engagement between allied warships and two pro-Qaddafi rigid-hull inflatable boats (RHIBs) headed towards Misrata that were packed with explosives may have been an attempt to attack NATO vessels. The attack by a small boat filled a ton of explosives and two human mannequins was called, “nothing less than a floating booby trap meant to kill people or sink ships” and appears to be reminiscent of the tactics used in the bombing of the U.S.S. Cole in 2000. The attempted attack marks a serious change in tactics for Qaddafi’s forces, and demonstrates they are willing and capable of attacking NATO vessels. (NATO)

MAY 16: NATO aircraft conducted 136 sorties on May 16, of which 46 were designated strikes sorties. In Tripoli, one command and control note and one military training facility was destroyed. Near Tripoli, one surface-to-air fire control radar and two land based air surveillance radars were destroyed. Around Misrata, one self-propelled artillery piece was destroyed and near Mizdah an ammunition storage facility was destroyed. A command and control node was also destroyed around Sabha. At sea, five vessels were hailed, none were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 16: Luis Moreno-Ocampo, The chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, announced that he would seek arrest warrants for Muammar Qaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam Qaddafi and Qaddafi’s brother-in-law and intelligence chief Abdullah Sanusi on charges of crimes against humanity. Moreno-Ocampo said he had considerable evidence showing that Qaddafi had personally ordered attacks on unarmed civilians, that Saif al-Islam was involved as the “de facto prime minister” of Libya and that Sanusi was his right-hand man and an “executioner”. Moreno-Ocampo said that Qaddafi and his cohorts have committed violations such as the use of heavy weapons— including cluster bombs—on civilian areas; preventing medical care for the wounded; arresting, torturing and raping opponents of the regime; and efforts to cover up crimes. Libya officials dismissed the warrants, and others feared they would complicate any political solution to end Qaddafi’s regime by restricting the number of countries that could accept him in exile and restrict contacts with Saif al-Islam, who was believed to be a reformer and possible successor to his father until recently. (New York Times, Washington Post, LA Times, al-Jazeera, BBC)

MAY 16:  NATO warships engaged two Qaddafi speed boats deployed from Zlintan and headed towards Misrata. As NATO warships approached, one boat stopped in the water and was abandoned and the second boat escaped at high speed back towards Zlintan. An allied explosive ordnance disposal team inspected the abandoned boat and discovered approximately one ton of explosives and two human mannequins. The boat was then destroyed by a NATO warship using small arms fire. (NATO)

MAY 15: British General Sir David Richards said that he wanted NATO to widen the range of targets that could be hit to ratchet up pressure on Qaddafi. Richards said, “If we do not up the ante now there is a risk that the conflict could result in Qaddafi clinging to power…At present NATO is not attacking infrastructure targets in Libya…But if we want to increase the pressure on Qaddafi’s regime then we need to give serious consideration to increasing the range of targets we can hit." Libyan Deputy Foreign Minister Khaled Kaim called Richards’s statements “provocative.” Richards’ comments indicate there is a growing concern that the conflict is settling into a strategic stalemate and NATO needs to quickly make a decisive breakthrough to force Qaddafi from power. Yet expanding NATO’s targets to include infrastructure targets such as fuel dumps and the electrical grid is controversial given NATO’s strict U.N. mandate to protect civilians. NATO has already expanded its airstrikes against key regime targets in Tripoli; the alliance reportedly struck 39 “key targets” in and around the capital early last week, including seven “command-and-control centers. While the intensified airstrikes have rattled the regime, there has been little indication so far that Qaddafi’s regime is seriously destabilized. (Daily Telegraph, Washington Post, New York Times)

MAY 15: NATO aircraft conducted 147 sorties on May 15, of which 48 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Az Zawiyah, one command and control node was destroyed, near Tripoli four surface-to-air missile launchers were destroyed, and around Misrata one self-propelled artillery piece was destroyed. In the vicinity of Hun, two ammunition storage facilities were destroyed and near Sirte two surface-to-surface missile launchers, one self-propelled artillery piece, and one armored personnel carrier were destroyed. At sea, 8 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 14: Tunisian authorities rescued 222 migrants fleeing Libya by sea after their boat started sinking. The migrants were attempting to reach Italy when their boat suffered serious damage. (Reuters)

MAY 14: NATO aircraft conducted 136 sorties on May 14, of which 52 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Tripoli, two infantry fighting vehicles and one armored vehicle storage facility were destroyed. Around Misrata, two rocket launchers were destroyed and in the vicinity of Al Qaryat an ammunition storage facility was destroyed. Near Zintan, two infantry fighting vehicles were destroyed. At sea, 8 vessels were hailed, two were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 13: Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini suggested in an interview that Muammar Qaddafi had fled Tripoli to seek refuge "in a safe place" and had likely been injured by a NATO airstrike. Frattini’s statement followed rumors that Qaddafi may have been injured by a NATO airstrike on Tripoli on May 12. However, Qaddafi quickly released an audio message in which he said, "I say to crusader cowards, I live in a place you cannot reach…I live in the hearts of millions.… If you kill my body, you cannot kill my soul." (LA Times)

MAY 13: According to Libyan officials, a NATO airstrike on the war-torn city of Brega killed 11 Muslim clerics and wounded 45 others who were in the area on a peace mission. The Libyan account could not be verified, but if confirmed, it would amount the largest number of civilian casualties caused by a NATO airstrike since coalition operations began on March 19. Carmen Romero, a NATO spokeswoman in Brussels, only confirmed that an airstrike had occurred at Brega that hit a Qaddafi command-and-control center. (New York Times, Wall Street Journal, LA Times, New York Times)   

MAY 13: National Security Advisor Tom Donilon met with rebel leader Mahmud Jibril at the White House. Jibril failed to secure U.S. diplomatic recognition of the rebel government, and did not meet with President Obama despite speculation he might informally drop by the talks. During the meeting, Donilon told the rebel leader that the United States viewed the National Transitional Council as a legitimate and credible interlocutor of the Libyan people and stressed that Qaddafi has lost his legitimacy to rule and reiterated President Obama's call for Qaddafi to leave immediately. President Obama met with NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen at the White House to discuss the Libya campaign and Afghanistan. (AFP, Christian Science Monitor)

MAY 13: NATO aircraft conducted 148 sorties on May 13, of which 44 were designated strikes sorties. In Tripoli, one command and control node was destroyed and near Tripoli two surface-to-air missile launchers and twenty armored vehicle storage buildings were destroyed. In the vicinity of Misrata, one armored personnel carrier and four military trucks were destroyed.

In the vicinity of Al Qaryat, for ammunition storage sites were destroyed and around Zintan one military vehicle was destroyed. Around Brega, two tanks were destroyed. At sea, 15 vessels were hailed, none were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 13: Rebel leader Mahmud Jibril is set to hold his first talks at the White House on Friday with National Security Advisor Tom Donilon, senior administration figures and key members of Congress. Jibril is expected to ask for the Obama administration to extend diplomatic recognition to the rebel government, which will likely be denied. White House spokesman Jay Carney said that recognizing the NTC was premature but that the body serves as a “credible and legitimate interlocutor for the Libyan people, for the opposition." (AFP, Wall Street Journal)

MAY 13: According to NATO officials, allied warplanes have “reduced to rubble” numerous ammunition bunkers in Sirte that had been resupplying pro-Qaddafi forces fighting in Misrata and Brega. This has reduced his troop’s capacity to launch attacks and significantly lowered their moral.  According to NATO spokesmen, the allied air campaign is not aimed at the attrition of pro-Qaddafi resources or the destruction of Qaddafi’s military, but rather the objectives to protect civilians set out by NATO Ministers in Berlin. (NATO)

MAY 13: Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov called for negotiations between Qaddafi and the rebels as soon as possible and urged a political solution to the conflict. Lavrov said talks with Qaddafi government were unavoidable, and the result would lead to, "a new political system, but it is necessary to seek agreement also with those upon whom the prospects for calming the situation depends." Russian officials have also objected to the United States providing the rebels with funds from frozen Libyan assets. (Reuters, AFP, Reuters)

MAY 12: The Obama administration is debating how the U.S. military can lawfully continue participating in NATO’s operations in Libya after May 20, when the air war will reach a 60-day legal deadline set by the War Powers Resolution of 1973 that calls for ending combat operations that have not been authorized by Congress. According to officials, the Obama administration has no intention of withdrawing U.S. forces from the Libya campaign but wanted to honor the War Powers Resolution. This has left the White House debating how it will continue operations by essentially finding legal loopholes. One idea is to halt airstrikes by U.S. Predator drones—the only American asset conducting attacks—and restrict the drones to gathering intelligence. Also in discussion is to reset the clock by ordering a complete pause in U.S. efforts for a short period and then reenter the operation with fresh calendar of 60-days. There is little precedent for presidents of both parties to defy the 60-day deadline in the War Powers Resolution, and while presidents have often engaged U.S. military forces without a Congressional mandate, the fighting has typically been over before the deadline set in or it received the backing of Congress. (New York Times)

MAY 12: The president of the French private security firm Secopex was killed at a police checkpoint in Benghazi and four other Frenchmen were detained. The Frenchmen was scheduled to hold a meeting with rebel leaders in Benghazi to discuss business opportunities as Secopex specializes in training bodyguards. There is uncertainty in the rebel government as to what happened and who is detaining the other French citizens. The confusion about the shooting in Benghazi has added to the growing shadow war simmering in the rebel capital between the many rebel militias, former Qaddafi loyalists and other groups with unknown allegiances. (New York Times, Washington Times)

MAY 12: Qatar reportedly has military trainers on the ground helping to organize the rebels. Qatari advisors have been bringing much needed discipline to the rebel ranks, instructing new recruits at training centers on fitness and basic infantry training. Britain, France, and Italy have dispatched small teams of military advisors to assist the rebels in improving their military organization, communications and logistics but they have not taken on a direct role training rebel fighters like Qatar. (Washington Post)

MAY 12: Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini said that the International Criminal Court will likely issue an arrest warrant for Muammar Qaddafi by the end of May. Frattini said the warrant would be a “key moment” in the battle against Qaddafi and make it impossible for Qaddafi to escape into exile. (Al-Jazeera)

MAY 12: The Canadian Frigate HMCS Charlottetown acting in coordination with the British Destroyer HMS Liverpool and backed by a French warship not under NATO Command thwarted an attack by pro-Qaddafi forces in fast small boats on the port of Misrata. The pro-Qaddafi boats were forced abandoned their attack by the NATO warships but regime forces along the coast covered their retreat with an inaccurate barrage of artillery and anti-aircraft canon fire against the allied vessels. The HMCS Charlottetown responded with machinegun fire and the HMS Liverpool also returned fire, silencing the coastal batteries. No damage or casualties were sustained by NATO forces during the fight. (NATO, Wall Street Journal)

MAY 12: NATO aircraft conducted 145 sorties on May 12, of which 52 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Tripoli, two surface-to-air missile launchers and three buildings inside a military camp were destroyed. Near Misrata, one surface-to-air missile launcher, two buildings, one truck-mounted gun, and one anti-aircraft gun were destroyed. In the vicinity of Al Qaryat, ten ammunition storage sites were destroyed and around Sirte five ammunition storage sites and one command and control node were destroyed. Near Brega, one rocket launcher and one tank were destroyed. At sea, six vessels were hailed, none were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 12: NATO aircraft conducted 141 sorties on May 11, of which 46 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Tripoli, four ammunition storage sites, four command and control facilities, and two surface-to-air missile launcher were destroyed. Near Surman, four surface-to-air missile launchers were destroyed and around Misrata one surface-to-air missile launcher was destroyed. At sea, ten vessels were hailed, none were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 12: NATO aircraft conducted 123 sorties on May 10, of which 42 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Tripoli, six vehicle storage sites, three ammunition storages sites, one surface-to-air missile launcher, and one self-propelled anti aircraft gun were destroyed. Around Mizdah, one ammunition storage site was destroyed and near Qaryat, three ammunition storage sites were destroyed. At sea, 5 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 12: NATO missiles struck Muammar Qaddafi’s Babb al-Aziza compound and several other sites in Tripoli early Thursday, hours after Qaddafi had made his first public appearance in two weeks on Libyan State Television. According to Libyan officials, the airstrike killed three people and wounded 27. NATO said it had stuck a large command and control bunker complex in Tripoli. NATO also denied targeting the North Korean Embassy in Tripoli in response to regime accusations that the embassy had been damaged by recent allied airstrikes. The airstrikes came as rebels in Misrata lifted the two-month long siege of the city. (Washington Post, Reuters, al-Jazeera, New York Times)

MAY 12: The British destroyer HMS Liverpool, engaged in surveillance operations off the Libyan coast, intercepted using speed boats belonging to Qaddafi’s forces as they approached the port of Misrata in a likely attempt to mine the harbor. Regime artillery on the coast, attempting to cover the boats, fired an inaccurate barrage of rockets at the Liverpool. The Liverpool returned fire, silencing the artillery, after which the speed boats abandoned their operation. (BBC)

MAY 12: The Obama administration has invited rebel leader Mahmoud Jibril and a delegation from the Libyan National Transitional Council to the White House on Friday to meet with National Security Adviser Tom Donilon and key members of Congress. A meeting between President Barack Obama and Jibril did not appear to be planned. (Associated Press, BBC)

MAY 12: Defense Secretary Robert Gates said that the United States has spent approximately $750 million so far on operations in Libya. Gates indicated that the Department of Defense was paying for it by moving around money in its own budget due to the lack of Congressional funding. (Reuters)

MAY 12: Prime Minister David Cameron said that other countries must also ratchet up the financial and military pressure to force Qaddafi to leave power. Cameron, after meeting in London with rebel leader Mustafa Abdul-Jalil, also said that Britain would provide several million pounds in uniforms and body armor to police officers in rebel-controlled eastern Libya, along with assistance in establishing a public radio station. Cameron also invited the rebels to establish a permanent diplomatic office in London to help cement relations with the Britain, which has not followed France and Italy in recognizing the rebel government. (Washington Post, BBC. Reuters)

MAY 11: The first shipment of U.S. aid to the rebels arrived in Benghazi, consisting of more than 10,000 halal MREs from Department of Defense stockpiles. Other materials currently being sent to the rebels include medical supplies, uniforms, boots, tents, and personal protective gear from U.S. stockpiles. President Obama authorized $25 million in U.S. non-lethal aid for delivery to the rebels on April 26. (AFP)

MAY 11: Senator John Kerry, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, said he is drafting legislation at the request of the White House and State Department to authorize the transfer of some $34 billion in frozen Libyan assets belonging to Qaddafi to the rebel government. Kerry said the full $34 billion in frozen funds will not be made available to the rebels, and not all of it was in liquid assets. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton indicated the amount unfrozen for the rebels could be about $150 million. Mahmoud Jibril, leader of the rebel council, visiting Washington D.C. to meet with U.S. officials and lawmakers, said the proposal seemed to have support in Congress but the process was too bureaucratic and consuming too much time. (National Journal, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal)

MAY 11: Polish Foreign Minister Radoslaw Sikorski visited Benghazi on Wednesday to demonstrate Poland and the European Union’s support for the rebel movement. Sikorski is the first senior official from the Libyan Contact Group to visit Benghazi. Sikorski told rebel leaders, “The only solution for Libya is the departure from power of Colonel Qaddafi and the launch of a constitutional process that would lead Libya to democratization." Poland has sought to express solidarity with the rebels and demonstrate its support for NATO’s involvement as it assumes the EU’s rotating presidency in July. Poland has come under criticism for refusing to take part in the NATO-led military operations in Libya. Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk, facing an election in October, has been reluctant to make another military commitment overseas in addition to Poland’s 2,500 troops in Afghanistan. (Reuters)

MAY 11: U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon called for an immediate cease-fire in Libya, saying that he had spoken with Qaddafi’s Prime Minister and would be dispatching a special envoy to Tripoli for consultations. NATO said it would possibly accept a cease-fire, while rebel leaders in Benghazi rejected the notion. (Washington Post, Associated Press)

MAY 11: Senator John McCain, ranking Republican on the Senate Armed Services Committee, said he does not think Congress will pass what would amount to a symbolic resolution supporting President Obama’s decision to engage U.S. military forces in Libya before the May 20th deadline set by the War Powers Act. After an initial wave of criticism from some in Congress that President Obama had not received Congressional authorization to take military action in Libya, McCain has been working with a bipartisan group of Senators, including Senator John Kerry, to find common language supporting the U.S. actions in Libya. Yet there seems to be little urgency by Senate leaders to move forward with a resolution. (Politico)

MAY 11: The House Armed Services Committee, in response to complaints that the Obama administration did not sufficiently consult Congress before the U.S. military began operations in Libya on March 19, has asked the Defense Department to turn over planning documents and records for military operations in Libya. (Military Times)

MAY 11: Tunisian security forces arrested a Libyan man traveling in a car packed with Kalashnikov rifle cartridges 50 miles from the Libyan border and an Algerian man transporting grenades. Both men appeared to be leaving Libya, stirring fears that al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and other militant groups in the region could be exploiting the Libyan conflict to acquire weapons and smuggle them elsewhere. A senior Algerian security official said last month that there were signs AQIM was attempting to acquire surface-to-air missiles in Libya, particularly SA-7s, as well as other arms. Algerian officials have also said that several convoys of pick-up trucks from eastern Libya that were full of RPGs, machine guns, explosives and ammunition had reached an al-Qaeda stronghold in northern Mali after crossing through Chad and Niger. Leaders from Mali and Chad also expressed fear that weapons from Libya were reaching AQIM. (Reuters, Reuters)

MAY 11: Italian authorities have said that the large influx of migrates fleeing Libya towards Europe are being deliberately sent by Qaddafi, who warned Europe two months ago of a flood of refugees. Under a 2008 treaty of friendship between Libya and Italy, Libyan naval forces cracked down on illegal migration routes, which had kept African migrants held up in Libya. Italy suspended the treaty in March. Libya hosted approximately 1.5 million illegal immigrants, mostly Sub-Saharan Africans, before the rebellion began in February. Some 750,000 immigrants are thought to have left since February, mostly returning to their home countries. However, thousands have attempted the dangerous journey across the Mediterranean to Europe, creating a humanitarian crisis on the Mediterranean and political problems ashore as European countries, particularly Italy and France, have struggled to deal with the political fallout from the surge of migrants. (Wall Street Journal, Guardian, New York Times)

MAY 11: Catherine Ashton, the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy of the European Union, said the EU plans to open an office in the rebel-capital of Benghazi in order to improve the flow of aid there. (BBC)

MAY 10: NATO aircraft continued to strike Qaddafi’s command-and-control centers in Tripoli, Sirte, Mizdah and Misrata. Qaddafi’s forces have not been able to mount an effective attack for some time, and regime troops had been forced by airstrikes to abandon defensive positions, particularly in Misrata. U.S. officials said NATO had increased the pace of its airstrikes, aided by U.S. Predator drones which have allowed the targeting of entrenched loyalist positions. U.S. Predator drones had worked with British fighter aircraft in an airstrike earlier in the week on a building in Misrata that was being used by Qaddafi spotters to call in artillery and rocket fire. NATO officials said a Predator drone had surveyed the building and then guided a pair of British Tornados in which fired missiles that destroyed the building’s upper floors where the spotters were located. (Washington Post)

MAY 10: According to NATO, alliance airstrikes have destroyed over thirty military targets in the Misrata area since May 2nd, including nine main battle tanks, three rocket launchers systems, three self propelled artillery pieces and fifteen ammunition storage sites. (NATO)

MAY 10: NATO aircraft conducted 146 sorties on May 9, of which 46 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Tripoli, three command and control facilities were destroyed. Near Mizdah, fifteen ammunition storage sites were destroyed. Around Misrata, one tank and one command and control node were destroyed and near Sirte two ammunition storage sites were destroyed. At sea, 20 vessels were hailed, two were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 9: Norwegian Defense Minister Grete Faremo has indicated Norway will scale down its role in Operation Unified Protector after June 24, when its current three-month commitment runs out. Norway was among the first European states willing to participating in operations in Libya and has six F-16 fighters flying missions over Libya. The announcement came after junior ruling party in the Norwegian government, the Socialist Left, demanded Norway withdrawal from the mission. Norwegian warplanes have 315 sorties over Libya and dropped 289 bombs. Norway is one of the few countries that allow its aircraft to conduct bombing missions against Libyan targets. (Reuters, Associated Press)

MAY 9: NATO said it was opening an investigation into reports that alliance warships failed to help at least two boats adrift for two weeks in the Mediterranean, carrying hundreds of African migrants from Libya trying to reach Europe. One boat capsized which led to the deaths of 62 migrants. (BBC, Guardian, Associated Press, New York Times)

MAY 8: RAF Tornado fighters destroyed two FROG-7 rocket launchers and 30 Scud-missile containers near the city of Sirte on Friday. British Defense Secretary Liam Fox praised the airstrike but rejected criticism that the mission in Libya was taking too long, saying "It was never going to be quick...when you are using air power to gradually degrade the regime's capabilities without damaging civilian infrastructure, with minimal risk to civilians and therefore fewer casualties. If you look at where we were a few weeks ago, with the threat of Benghazi falling and with the potential humanitarian calamity for almost one million people, we have seen that threat removed." (BBC)

MAY 8: NATO officials have said their efforts to break Qaddafi’s siege of Misrata have been frustrated by Qaddafi’s forces concealing their tanks and artillery and using 'shoot and scoot' tactics. According to rebels in Misrata, NATO airstrikes have been more successful striking moving targets than static forces, but Qaddafi’s forces have been fast to replace destroyed equipment. Italian Admiral Giampaolo Di Paola has said that NATO is succeeding based on the fact Misrata has not fallen to the regime and the port remains open, and that NATO was dismantling Qaddafi’s forces “piece by piece.” (Reuters)

MAY 8: NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said he was optimistic that Qaddafi’s "time is over," but that the conflict would require a political, not military, solution. National Security Advisor Tom Donilon, when asked if the United States would expand its role in Libya, said NATO had "all the assets that are needed to engage in civilian protection mission and they are engaging in it." (Reuters)

MAY 8: NATO aircraft conducted 159 sorties on May 8, of which 64 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Zintan, four ammunition storage sites were destroyed and around Ajdabiya one command & control node was destroyed. In the vicinity of Misrata, five rocket launchers, one self-propelled artillery piece, one truck- mounted gun, and three buildings hosting active shooters were destroyed. Around Hun, twenty-six ammunition storages sites and sixteen vehicle storages sites were destroyed. In the vicinity of Brega, eight military vehicles were destroyed while near Al-Aziziyah, two ammunition storage sites were destroyed. In Tripoli, two military operational facilities were destroyed. At sea, 12 vessels were hailed, none were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 7: Nearly 100 artillery rounds fell on or near the Tunisian border town of Dehiba as pro-Qaddafi forces and Berber rebels continue to fight over control of the Libyan town of Wazzin. Tunisia strongly warned Libya that shelling of its territory was "extremely dangerous" and Tunisia would protect its sovereignty. (Reuters)

MAY 7: Rebel spokesman Abdul Hafidh Ghoga said the rebels plan to use money pledged for humanitarian and reconstruction at the Libyan Contact Group meeting in Rome to purchase weapons from Italy and were in negotiating with France for arms. Italian officials have denied the rebel claim, saying they were only providing the rebels with “self-defense material” and funds for administrative purposes, but not weapons. (Washington Post, AFP)

MAY 7: NATO aircraft conducted 153 sorties on May 7, of which 53 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Zintan, four ammunition storage sites and one anti-aircraft gun were destroyed. In the vicinity of Ajdabiya, two tanks were destroyed and near Misrata three tanks and one military vehicle were destroyed. In the vicinity of Hun (south of Sirte), twelve ammunition storage sites, twenty vehicle storage sites, eight headquarters compound buildings were destroyed. Around Brega, eight military vehicles were destroyed. At sea, 16 vessels were hailed, two were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 6: NATO aircraft conducted 149 sorties on May 6, of which 56 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Zintan, three tanks were destroyed, around Tripoli eight ammunition storages sites were destroyed, and near Mizdah four ammunition storage sites were destroyed. In the vicinity of Misrata, one self-propelled artillery piece, one heavy equipment transport, eight military trucks, and one building of snipers. Around Sirte, eight ammunition storages, and one command & control facility were destroyed. Around Ras Lanuf, one command & control facility was destroyed. Near Brega, four tanks and five rocket launchers were destroyed. At sea, 12 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 6: Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini said NATO could ends its intervention in Libya in three to four weeks. Frattini said, “"It's not about having a deadline but how to make it so the protective military action can stop as soon as possible," Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi's People of Freedom party is under intense pressure from its coalition ally the Northern League over Italy’s expanded role in Libya, including Italian warplanes participating in airstrikes. Berlusconi mended the relationship by pledging to seek a time table on the alliance’s military actions. (AKI)
MAY 6: Russia warned the 20-country Libyan Contact Group not to overstep the authority of the U.N. Security Council. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, after speaking with Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi, said the group was attempting to "take on the leading role in determining the policy of the international community in relation to Libya," when it should be concerned with stopping the fighting. Lavrov also stated Russia’s strong opposition to any foreign ground operation in Libya. (Reuters)

MAY 5: The United States has pledged $53 million and authorized up to $25 million in assistance to the rebels, including non-lethal supplies such as medicine, boots, tents, rations and protective gear. The first aid shipment from the United States is due to arrive in Benghazi in the next few days. (BBC)

MAY 5: France expelled 14 Libyan diplomats still loyal to Qaddafi shortly after a meeting of the Libyan Contact Group in Rome had announced its plans to provide financial support the rebels. France’s expulsion followed Britain’s footsteps, which had recently expelled diplomats who remained loyal to the regime. (New York Times, Reuters)

MAY 5: NATO aircraft conducted 154 sorties on May 5, of which 57 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Zintan, nine ammunition storage sites, three tanks, two armored fighting vehicles, two rocket launchers, two truck-mounted guns, and one resupply facility were destroyed. Around Sirte, eight ammunition storage sites were destroyed while near Brega, three rocket launchers were destroyed. In the vicinity of Mizdah, three ammunition storages were destroyed and one tank was destroyed near Misrata. In the vicinity of Ras Lanuf, one communications facility was destroyed. At sea, 23 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 5: The United States imposed financial sanctions on several additional companies owned by the Qaddafi regime. The companies added to the U.S. blacklist included Dalia Advisory Ltd, Libya's state broadcasting company and Lafico Algeria Holdings, an Algeria-based subsidiary of the Libyan Arab Foreign Investment Company. (Reuters)

MAY 5: NATO aircraft conducted 160 sorties on May 4, of which 49 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Tripoli, two ammunition storage sites, one bunker and one surface-to-air missile location were destroyed. Around Misrata, one pick-up truck, three tanks, two mobile rocket launchers, and three armored vehicles were destroyed. In the vicinity of Ajdabiya, one mobile rocket launcher was destroyed. At sea, 11 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 5: Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said the Obama administration was working with Congress to pass legislation to allow the United States to provide the rebel government with parts of the $34 billion in assets belonging to Qaddafi and other senior officials frozen by the Treasury Department. The United States has already allocated $25 million to help the rebels procure non-lethal supplies, but due of legal issues, including the fact the United States has not yet extended official recognition to the rebel government, it has not released any of the frozen Libyan assets. Clinton also said that the U.S. Treasury Department was looking for ways to removed domestic legal barriers that restrict the United States from making oil transactions with the rebel government. (Wall Street Journal, Reuters, New York Times)

MAY 5: Top officials from the United States, Britain, France, Italy, Qatar and fifteen other countries, along with representatives from the Arab League and the African Union, met in Rome as part of the Libyan Contact Group to discuss the situation in Libya. The group agreed to bolster the rebel government with badly needed funds through the creation of a multi-billion dollar trust fund for the rebels that would be filled with the Qaddafi regime’s frozen assets. The meeting is not expected to address NATO’s military campaign, although there have been signs that the allies are becoming increasingly frustrated with the stalemate on the ground. (Washington Post, Reuters)

MAY 5: NATO airstrikes destroyed at least two regime helicopters being moved on trucks near of Zintan. The HMS Brocklesby destroyed a mine laid by Qaddafi’s forces in the port of Misrata that had delayed humanitarian shipments to the ship. (Reuters, BBC)

MAY 5: Britain said it had no plans to contribute to the rebel trust fund because it had already made substantial contributions to humanitarian assistance for the rebels. Kuwait pledged to contribute $180 million in aid to the rebels, while Qatar is sending some $400-500 million in aid. (Reuters)

MAY 5: Several European countries including Spain, Denmark and the Netherlands, have denied rebel claims that they had extended official recognition to the rebel government. Spanish officials said that the rebels were an “official negotiating counterparty” but that it would keep its embassy in Tripoli open. Danish officials said they treated the rebels as a "relevant partner for dialogue" but was not considering recognition.  (Reuters)

MAY 4: French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe and Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini both said that NATO’s military intervention must end as fast as possible. Juppe warned that sending in ground troops was not an option because it would lead to a “quagmire.” Frattini, speaking to a skeptical Italian Parliament, said that it was not possible to set an end date for NATO’s operation; Italy’s political goal was for military action to end as soon as possible. After Frattini’s remarks, Italian lawmakers voted 308-294 to keep Italy in Operation Unified Protector but called for the government and allies to work out a timeframe for military strikes, seek an immediate political solution and ruled out sending Italian ground troops to Libya. (Associated Press)

MAY 4: NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said Operation Unified Protector would not end before NATO achieved three military goals: ending attacks on civilians, the withdrawal of regime forces to their bases and ensuring humanitarian assistance to Libya is unhindered. Rasmussen also said he could not set a date when the three military objectives will be fulfilled. While NATO’s mandate does not include regime change, it does include ensuring the protection of civilians, and Rasmussen said he found it hard to imagine civilians being protected as long as Qaddafi was in power. (Defense News, Associated Press)

MAY 4: ICC Chief Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo told the U.N. Security Council that he would seek arrest warrants for at least three Libyan officials for crimes against humanity. Moreno-Ocampo did not name who he sought to bring charges against, but only that they were the “most responsible” for the crimes. Moreno-Ocampo described the shooting of anti-Qaddafi protestors as “systematic” and there were efforts by the regime to cover up the crimes. The prosecutor said that the Libyan government had raised the issue of civilian casualties caused by NATO airstrikes, but that he was still waiting for more information before deciding to cover NATO’s actions in his investigation. Russian ambassador Vitaly Churkin said that his country was concerned by the mounting civilian casualties, which he said were the responsibility of all parties involved including NATO. (New York Times, Washington Post)

MAY 4: Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini said that Italy would work with NATO and its allies towards setting an end date for NATO’s operations in Libya. Officials said that Italy’s commitment to the mission was not wavering but it was time to begin discussing its sustainability. The announcement is largely seen as a move by Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi to placate a key party in his parliamentary coalition that has opposed Italy’s role in Libya. (Associated Press)

MAY 4: After a NATO summit in Brussels, NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said that Qaddafi’s military forces were significantly weaker now than when the NATO operation began in March. (Reuters)

 MAY 4: CIA Director Leon Panetta said that U.S. intelligence indicates that Qaddafi is alive. The Libyan leader has not been seen in public since he reportedly escaped a NATO airstrike several days ago that killed his son and four grandchildren. (Reuters)

MAY 4: The ICC chief prosecutor, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, has determined there are “reasonable grounds” to charge Qaddafi’s security forces with war crimes and crimes against humanity. In a reported sent to the U.N. Security Council, ICC investigators indicated they had established preliminary estimates that approximately 500 to 700 civilians had been shot to death by Qaddafi’s forces. Moreno-Ocampo intends to submit applications for arrest warrants against regime officials in the next few weeks. The ICC report also suggested rebels had engaged in arrest, mistreatment and killings of sub-Saharan Africans perceived to be mercenaries. (Washington Post)

MAY 3: Italian Vice Admiral Rinaldo Veri, commander of the NATO naval operation, said the alliance operation would continue until Qaddafi’s forces stopped attacking civilians and returned to their barracks. Admiral Veri rejected suggestions the war had stalemated and insisted that NATO was achieving its goals. (Reuters)

MAY 3: Rebel leaders have asked international donors for up to $3 billion in loans to pay for its fledgling government in eastern Libya. A senior U.S. official said the coalition wants to provide financial support to the rebels, but hasn’t committed to a precise amount and is trying to figure out how to do so legally. The U.S Treasury Department has frozen around $30 billion in Libyan assets since sanctions were imposed in February 2011. U.S. officials indicated they could provide the frozen money to the rebels by an executive order issued by President Obama or by Congressional legislation that directed President Obama to make the money available to the rebels. (Washington Post, LA Times)

MAY 3: The Turkish Foreign Ministry said that Prime Minister Erdogan had spoken to Qaddafi three times in private since the rebellion began and each time urged him to step down peacefully, but that Qaddafi had rebuffed him. (New York Times, LA Times)

MAY 3: NATO aircraft conducted 161 sorties on May 3, of which 62 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Tripoli, two ammunition storage sites were destroyed while an armored fighting vehicle and two ammunition storage sites were destroyed near Zintan. Three ammunition storage sites and three tanks were destroyed near Misrata, two tanks were destroyed near Sirte and two rocket launchers and a tank were destroyed near Ras Lanuf. At sea, 33 vessels were hailed, three were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 3: NATO aircraft conducted 158 sorties on May 2, of which 56 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Misrata, twelve ammunition storage sites and three self-propelled artillery pieces were destroyed while two APCs were destroyed near Sirte. A multiple rocket launcher was destroyed near Ras Lanuf and an ammunition storage site was destroyed near Zintan. Around Brega a truck-mounted gun, three multiple rocket launchers were destroyed. At sea, 6 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

MAY 3: Turkey, which has had a long amicable relationship with Qaddafi, increased pressure on the Libyan regime after Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan insisted Qaddafi must leave Libya immediately, “for the sake of his country’s future.” Turkey closed its embassy in Tripoli on Monday after loyalist mobs attacked Western embassies over the weekend; while the Turkish embassy in Benghazi has remained open. (Washington Post)

MAY 2: The rebel leadership expects foreign powers to lend it $2 billion to $3 billion secured from frozen Libyan state assets held abroad since the start of the conflict. Ali Tarhouni, head of the National Transitional Council’s finance committee, said the rebels were spending between $43 million to $86 million per day and had enough reserves for three or four weeks. Meanwhile, Switzerland had frozen more than $400 million in Qaddafi’s funds. (Reuters, BBC)

MAY 2: NATO minesweepers continued searching the approaches of Misrata harbor for a mine laid by pro-Qaddafi fighters over the weekend that is blocking aid supplies to the besieged city. (Reuters)

MAY 2: Investigators from the International Criminal Court said they have proof that pro-Qaddafi forces committed crimes against humanity for the shooting of civilians, and the crime of persecution for mass arrests and torture. Luis Moreno-Ocampo, the ICC chief prosecutor, said that he would soon ask for up to five arrest warrants—but did not disclose names. The ICC is also investigating rebels for alleged attacks on African Libyans, who are often accused of being mercenaries. (Reuters)

MAY 2: The Royal Air Force has decided not to extend danger pay to British pilots flying Typhoon and Tornado over Libya, while British pilots in both Iraq and Afghanistan currently receive the payment. (Daily Telegraph, AFP)

MAY 2: Turkey said was evacuating its diplomatic staff from its embassy in Tripoli following attacks by pro-Qaddafi supporters on Western embassies after a NATO airstrike killed one of Qaddafi’s sons. (Reuters)

MAY 2: Russia and China have called for an immediate cease-fire in Libya and said they have serious doubts that NATO was not targeting Qaddafi and his family for assassination. South Africa, which has led an African Union peace initiative, condemned the air raid and said the U.N. resolution did not authorize the assassination of individuals. (AFP, Reuters, Reuters)

MAY 1: NATO officials and Coalition leaders defended the alliance’s intensified airstrikes in Libya amid criticism that they were exceeding the limits of the Security Council resolution, saying they had targeted a command and control facility. Lt. Gen. Charles Bouchard, NATO’s operational commander, said he was unaware of Saif al-Arab Qaddafi’s death but stated, "All NATO's targets are military in nature and have been clearly linked to the Qaddafi regime's systematic attacks on the Libyan population and populated areas. We do not target individuals."

Other NATO officials said they had gathered signals intelligence which indicated the site was being using it to communicate with military units to carry out attacks against rebels. Further, NATO officials said the building had been disguised as a residence but was really a command and control bunker and Qaddafi’s presence was coincidental. (LA Times)

MAY 1: In retaliation for the NATO airstrike that killed one of Qaddafi’s sons and several of his grandchildren, mobs of pro-Qaddafi supporters attacked the shuttered American, British and Italian embassies in Tripoli and ransacked U.N. facilities, forcing the evacuation of the twelve remaining U.N. staff. The U.S. Embassy was apparently burned, and loyalists draped the solid green flag of Libya over it from the roof and vandalized its walls with pro-regime graffiti. The State Department condemned the attacks and said that by failing to protect foreign embassies, the Libyan government had breached its international responsibilities and obligations once again. The British government also condemned the attacks and expelled the Libyan ambassador. Qaddafi’s military showed no sign of restraint after the airstrikes, shelling rebel positions in the besieged port city of Misrata and elsewhere. (New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal)

MAY 1: NATO warplanes dropped four precision-guided weapons on a compound in Tripoli on Saturday night, killing Qaddafi’s youngest son, 29-year old Saif al-Arab Qaddafi, and several of his grandchildren from his other sons and daughter. Saif al-Arab had kept a low-key profile in his father’s regime, and was not linked to any government or military position, spending most of his time studying in Germany before the rebellion began. The compound had been under allied surveillance for several days after NATO intercepted high-level signals communications from the site, but NATO and U.S. officials have said they did not know if Qaddafi and his family were inside at the time of the strike. The deaths have only been verified by the Libyan government, which also claimed that Qaddafi and his wife were inside at the time of the airstrike but were unharmed. NATO officials claimed the compound was in Qaddafi’s Babb Aziza complex, which has been previously struck. Reporters however, were taken to a destroyed compound in a wealthy residential area across town that had been hit by at least three missiles and another that had not exploded, there were no obvious signs of military command and control facilities at that location and it was clearly being used as a residence. Yet there was some speculation that there was a bunker underneath that may have been covered up by Libyan officials. (New York Times, Washington Post, LA Times, Wall Street Journal, NATO)

MAY 1: NATO aircraft conducted 165 sorties on May 1, of which 60 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Tripoli, one ammunition storage site was destroyed. Around Mizdah, three ammunition storages sites were destroyed. Near Zintan, two ammunition storages, one APC, three armored fighting vehicles, and one military truck were destroyed. Around Sirte, six ammunition storage sites were destroyed, while one communications facility around Dahra was destroyed. In the vicinity of Brega, one tank and one antiaircraft gun were destroyed. At sea, 11 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 30: NATO aircraft conducted 165 sorties on April 30, of which 43 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Tripoli, one command and control building and seven ammunition storage sites were destroyed. Around Zintan, two ammunition storages sites were destroyed. In Misrata, one tank was destroyed and around Sirte, one tank was destroyed. At sea, 14 vessels were hailed, two were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 30: Tunisian troops have been patrolling the Tunisian border town of Dehiba, about three miles from Libya, in a bid to find pro-Qaddafi forces that crossed into Tunisia while fighting rebels. On Thursday, pro-Qaddafi fighters and rebels engaged in a bloody battle for control of the border post between Dehiba and the Libyan town of Wazin, leaving dozens dead and at least 20 wounded. Qaddafi forces captured Wazin after it had been held by rebels for a week. The Tunisian Foreign Ministry summoned Libyan representatives in Tunis gave a "very strong protest" against the Libyan incursions. Tunisian forces had reportedly captured pro-Qaddafi forces and returned them to Libya. (LA Times, Washington Post)

APRIL 29: NATO aircraft conducted 156 sorties on April 29, of which 55 were designated strikes sorties. In the vicinity of Tripoli, one command and control building and one self-propelled artillery piece were destroyed. Around Zintan, thirteen ammunition storages sites and one APC were destroyed. Near Brega, one armored fighting vehicle was destroyed and around Sirte, four ammunition storage sites were destroyed. At sea, 20 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 29: According to NATO officials, pro-Qaddafi forces in small vessels were laying mines in the Misrata harbor in order to block humanitarian aid access to the city. NATO warships intercepted the vessels, detained the crews and disposed of the mines. (Reuters, BBC)

APRIL 29: The Tunisian Foreign Ministry expressed its “extreme indignation” to the Libyan government after fighting between pro-Qaddafi forces and rebels spilled into its territory near the border towns of Wezen in Libya and Dehiba in Tunisia. Pro-Qaddafi forces and rebels have been fighting for control of Wezen for days, hoping to capture the border post that is the lifeline of the rebellion in the Western Mountains. Tunisian troops are reported to have clashed with and captured pro-Qaddafi soldiers on Tunisian soil. (Washington Post, Reuters, BBC)

APRIL 29: In a closed-door Security Council meeting on Libya, U.S. Ambassador Susan Rice said that loyalist troops were increasingly engaging in sexual violence against Libyan civilians and stated that some troops had been issued Viagra to engage in rape. Several diplomats said Ambassador Rice provided no evidence for the Viagra allegation, which was first reported by the British press, but she raised the issue while trying to make the case that Qaddafi was committing war crimes against civilians. No diplomats responded to Rice’s accusation in the meeting. (Reuters)

APRIL 28: Italian warplanes conducted their first airstrikes against Libyan targets on April 28, just two days after the Italian government indicated it would participate in NATO bombing runs against pro-Qaddafi forces. The Italian Defense Ministry said the airstrikes were conducted by several Italian Tornado aircraft that took off from Trapani air base in Sicily. (Defense News)

APRIL 28: French warplanes are dropping inert bombs packed with concrete instead of explosives to destroy pro-Qaddafi tanks in an effort to avoid killing civilians by limiting the amount of shrapnel thrown out. The French military denied rumors that the use of the 300-kilogram (660-pound) training devices was due to a shortage of laser-guided bombs and said the first such strike crushed an armored vehicle on April 26. French warplanes have conducted 216 sorties over Libya in the past week and destroyed targets including fifteen armored vehicles and an ammunition depot. (AFP)

APRIL 28: NATO Officials could not confirm whether an airstrike accidently killed a dozen rebels in Misrata, but the alliance expressed its regret for any loss of life in its mission to protect civilians. A rebel leader in Misrata avoided blaming NATO for the strike, saying the rebel fighters had moved past limits of advance NATO had given them, and put themselves at risk. NATO and the rebels have been taking precautions to avoid friendly fire incidents, such as marking rebel vehicles and reporting their precise fighting positions to NATO. (New York Times, LA Times)

APRIL 28: NATO aircraft conducted 142 sorties on April 28, of which 67 were designated strike sorties. Around Tripoli, a command and control building, a helicopter maintenance area, seven ammunition storage bunkers, and five infantry fighting vehicles were destroyed. In the vicinity of Zintan, one ammunition storage facility was destroyed while around Brega, a command and control building was destroyed. At sea, 24 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 28: A NATO warplane struck a rebel position on the front lines of Misrata, killing 12 rebel fighters and wounding five that had set up defensive positions in an abandoned salt factory near the port. Rebels called an accident that could have been avoided because they had previously informed NATO of their fighting position. NATO has intensified its airstrikes on pro-Qaddafi forces in recent days, and rebel leaders were reluctant to admit the accident so as not to discourage NATO airstrikes. This is the third friendly fire incident between NATO and the rebels since coalition operations began in mid-March. NATO officials said they were aware of the reports but could not confirm or deny the strike yet. (New York Times, BBC, Washington Post)

APRIL 27: British Defense Secretary Liam Fox, when asked in Parliament if ground troops would be needed in Libya for humanitarian purposes or to protect safe havens or its borders, said it was “something we may have to look at.” Fox quickly reiterated that there was “no intention to deploy any British troops on the border with Libya.” Fox stated that the Libya mission was becoming more demanding on the over-stretched British military than ministers had initially hoped, but insisted the mission was consistent as the British government slashes defense spending, stating the British operation was being paid for by the Treasury reserve, not the defense budget. (Daily Telegraph)

APRIL 27: U.S. ambassador to Libya Gene Cretz said that the rebel government is a “political body which is worthy of our support." Yet the United States is not ready to extend official recognition to the rebels as France, Italy and Qatar have done. (LA Times)

APRIL 27: U.S. ambassador to Libya Gene A. Cretz said that U.S. officials had seen estimates of the dead in Libya ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 people. Cretz did not offer any explanation or evidence for the estimate. (New York Times)

APRIL 27: NATO aircraft conducted 119 sorties on April 27, of which 41 were designated strike sorties. Around Tripoli, a communications facility; two vehicle storage buildings; and one surface-to-air missile storage facility were destroyed. In Misrata, two rocket launchers, two artillery vehicles, and one armored personnel carrier were destroyed. In the vicinity of Mizdah, seven ammunition storage bunkers were destroyed while around Sirte, twelve ammunition storage bunkers were destroyed. At sea, 20 vessels were hailed, two were boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 27: An Emirati F-16 fighter crashed as it landed on a runway at the Sigonella Naval Air Station in Sicily, Italy. The F-16, which had departed from Decimomannu Airbase in Sardinia, Italy, was part of the UAE’s contribution to Operation Unified Protector. The pilot safely ejected, but the F-16 suffered substantial damage and the runway was temporarily shut down. (Reuters, AVIO, NATO)

APRIL 27: NATO airstrikes forced loyalist forces to withdraw from a position in the city of Misrata overnight but they resumed bombardment of the port area. A loyalist offensive of 200 to 300 fighters in pickup trucks backed by a heavy artillery barrage attacked Misrata’s port, but NATO airstrikes and rebel reinforcements staved off the offensive. (Wall Street Journal, Reuters)

APRIL 27: After abstaining from conducting airstrikes since allied operations in Libya began over a month ago, Italian Defense Minister Ignazio La Russa said Italy would immediately contribute eight warplanes to conduct airstrikes against pro-Qaddafi forces. The Italian strike group includes four Tornado fighter aircraft and four AV8 Harrier attack aircraft. Additionally, four Italian F-16 fighters will continue to patrol the no-fly zone. This comes after pressure from President Nicholas Sarkozy and President Barack Obama on Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi to increase his country’s role in the NATO mission, Berlusconi then decided to increase Italy’s “operational flexibility” in Libya. (RIA, Associated Press)

APRIL 27: The U.S. Treasury Department has approved allowing U.S. companies to receive oil exports from the rebel government. Any oil purchases from Libya, however, must supply a report to the U.S. government detailing the arrangements to ensure the deal does not violate U.N. and U.S. sanctions imposed on Libya. (UPI, Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 26: NATO is expanding its air campaign by launching strikes against command and control facilities and other regime buildings used by Qaddafi and his top aides in Tripoli. NATO officials said the escalation is meant to sever Qaddafi’s communication and supply links with loyalist units fighting the rebels in the East. However, some NATO officials indicated the goal was to hit directly at the pillars of the regime including Qaddafi himself. Lt. Gen. Charles Bouchard said the airstrikes were "not about individuals" and "not about regime change.” Bouchard stated that airstrikes would focus on "command-and-control nodes that are utilized to order military personnel to engage the civilian population." (LA Times, New York Times, Washington Post)

APRIL 26: Qaddafi’s regime imported gasoline from Italian refiner Saras earlier in the month by taking advantage of a loophole in U.N. sanctions that permits purchases by companies not on a list of banned entities. The cargo was delivered to Libya via ship-to-ship transfer in Tunisia. The shipment was allowed under U.N. sanctions because Libya's General National Maritime Transport Company (GNMTC) which owns the Libyan ship is not on a U.N. blacklist. GNMTC is owned by Hannibal Qaddafi, one of Muammar Qaddafi’s sons. (Reuters)

APRIL 26: NATO officials have indicated they are intercepting cell phone conversations, radio communications and other communications to find facilities used by Qaddafi’s inner circle. NATO has also received intelligence that some Libyan soldiers had abandoned their positions and fled. (LA Times, New York Times)

APRIL 26: According to Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, a delegation of Libyan officials is in Venezuela to discuss possible peaceful solutions to the conflict. Chavez has been a vocal opponent of NATO’s intervention in Libya and is a close ally of Qaddafi. (Reuters)

APRIL 26: The White House has approved an authorization to send $25 million in nonlethal assistance to the rebels. (Washington Post)

APRIL 26: NATO aircraft conducted 123 sorties on April 26, of which 52 were designated strikes sorties. In Misrata, six military vehicles, seven technical vehicles and one surface-to-air missile launcher were destroyed. Around Al-Khums, four tanks and two Heavy Equipment Transporter trucks were destroyed. In Brega, one rocket launchers and three military vehicles were destroyed. In Mizdah, eight ammunition bunkers were destroyed. At sea, 22 vessels were hailed, one was boarded, and none were diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 26: Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi announced that Italy will begin taking part in airstrikes on Libya. Italian aircraft had previously not been participating in air-to-ground strikes, but enforcing the no-fly zone and providing other support such as bases and reconnaissance aircraft. Berlusconi’s decision was seen as yielding to coalition pressure from France, Britain and the United States. He made the decision after meeting in Rome with President Nicholas Sarkozy and speaking to President Obama. Berlusconi’s decision immediately created tension within Italy’s coalition government. (Washington Post, Reuters, BBC, AKI)

APRIL 26: The United States and Britain are to begin examining new ways to undermine Qaddafi’s forces inside Libya, particularly whether actions can be taken to cut fuel supplies to its forces on the ground. Fuel supplies have become a major focus inside the British government in recent days. According to one official, Qaddafi’s forces could become very vulnerable if their supply of diesel fuel dries up and the country does not have much refining capacity. (Financial Times)

APRIL 26: Foreign Secretary William Hague briefed the British cabinet about the situation in Libya, indicating that progress was being made in putting greater pressure on Qaddafi and there were "grounds for optimism". However, a spokesman for Prime Minister David Cameron said, "We must prepare for the long haul." (BBC)

APRIL 26: British Defence Secretary Liam Fox is set to meet U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates in Washington for discussions on the conflict. They will be accompanied by talks between British Chief of Defence Staff General Sir David Richards and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Mike Mullen. (Financial Times)

APRIL 26: The African Union accused Western nations of undermining its peacemaking efforts and said the civil war was in danger of becoming a stalemate. (Reuters)

APRIL 25: U.S. officials indicated that the first shipment of food aid from U.S. farms, part of a $5 million donation of food for Libya, arrived in Alexandria, Egypt. U.S. officials said the U.N. World Food Program would store the food stuffs for use if the situation in Libya deteriorates. U.S. officials fear that the fragile food supply chain in Libya will begin to break down if the fighting continues because Libya is a net food importer. Yet conditions in Libya had improved in recent days, Misrata, where rebels took the last government position in the city, no longer required emergency food aid. The United States is providing a total of $47 million in humanitarian aid in Libya, much of which is going towards evacuating foreign workers trying to flee the country. (Washington Post, Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 25: The Libyan government accused NATO of trying to assassinate Qaddafi after allied warplanes fired two missiles at buildings in Qaddafi’s compound in Tripoli.  NATO stated the bombing was a precision strike against a communications headquarters used to coordinate attacks on civilians. The Obama administration denied that the strike was intended to kill Qaddafi, White House spokesman Jay Carney said it was, “certainly not the policy of the coalition, of this administration, to decapitate, if you will, or to effect regime change in Libya by force.” (Washington Post, LA Times)

APRIL 25: NATO aircraft conducted 133 sorties on April 25, of which 56 were designated strikes sorties. In Tripoli, one intelligence complex was destroyed while in the vicinity of Tripoli one tank, three surface-to-air missile launchers, three infantry fighting vehicles, one rocket launcher and one vehicle depot were struck. In Misrata, one surface-to-air missile training facility was destroyed. In Sirte, three ammunition depots were destroyed. In Al-Khums, two tanks and two infantry fighting vehicles were destroyed. At sea, 30 vessels were hailed, three were boarded and none diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 25: NATO warplanes dropped two bombs on Qaddafi’s sprawling Bab al-Aziziya compound in Tripoli, causing severe damage to at least two buildings but apparently causing no major injuries. One building reportedly contained offices and a library used by Qaddafi, who was unharmed in the raid, the other was where Qaddafi had held meetings with African Union leaders earlier in the month. NATO planes also struck the state television station, causing it to go offline for about half an hour. Before the compound was hit, NATO forces appeared to be ratcheting up strikes against targets in Tripoli, destroying an underground bunker just outside the compound two days ago. (Washington Post, New York Times, BBC, CNN)

APRIL 25: The African Union reported that Libya's foreign minister Abdelati Obeidi and two rebel representatives were meeting separately with the AU Peace and Security Council in Addis Ababa to discuss a possible solution to the conflict. (Reuters)

APRIL 25: Rebel leader Mustafa Abdel Jalil indicated that Kuwait had agreed to give 50 million Kuwaiti dinars ($177 million) to the rebel government to help pay workers. (Reuters)

APRIL 25: British Foreign Secretary William Hague expressed doubt that Qaddafi’s forces would withdrawal from Misrata, and the pause in fighting may be an attempt by Qaddafi’s men to switch to move asymmetric tactics. (Washington Post)

APRIL 25: Rebel leaders indicated that oil shipments, made in conjunction with Qatar, would have to be halted for at least four weeks following Qaddafi strikes on two oil fields over the weekend. (UPI)

APRIL 24: The effort to freeze the Qaddafi regime's foreign assets is running into problems and resistance across the globe which is allowing Qaddafi to access a vast hoard of cash that is keeping his regime afloat during the rebellion. Although the United States and the Europeans have frozen more than $60 billion in Libyan assets, many nations have done little or nothing against Qaddafi’s sprawling commercial empire, which fueled by oil revenues, has spread Libyan business interests across Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Since the end of sanctions in 2003, Qaddafi has hoarded a reserve of $104.5 billion in cash and gold in Libya. Officials acknowledged Qaddafi has transferred billions of dollars back to Tripoli since the rebellion began and his access to cash has hampered efforts to persuade his inner circle and military commands to defect. Countries such as China, Russia, India, Turkey, Kenya and Zimbabwe have either hesitated to enforce U.N. sanctions or not done so at all. In several instances, governments in developing nations lack the technical capability to trace assets with hidden connections to Qaddafi. (LA Times)

APRIL 24: NATO aircraft conducted 143 sorties on April 22, of which 62 were designated strikes sorties. In Tripoli, one communications headquarters was destroyed while in the vicinity of Tripoli one ammunition storage site and an ammunition bunker were destroyed. In Misrata, one tank and one ammunition storage site were destroyed. In Sirte, four ammunition

Shelters and four ammunition bunkers were destroyed. In Mizdah, one tank and four rocket launchers were destroyed. Around Zintan, two infantry fighting vehicles were destroyed. At sea, 421 vessels were hailed, none were boarded or diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 24: Senators Joe Lieberman, John McCain and Lindsey Graham, members of the Senate Armed Services Committee, have urged the United States to increase its support to the rebels and military pressure on the Qaddafi regime with U.S. warplanes returning to NATO’s air campaign. McCain and Lieberman have urged support for a well-trained, equipped, well-supported rebel forces to beat Qaddafi on the ground, while Graham urged NATO to strike at Qaddafi and his inner-circle in Tripoli. (Washington Times, The Hill)

APRIL 23: The first airstrike by a U.S. Predator drone occurred around Misrata on Saturday, destroying a rocket-launching vehicle. A second Predator strike occurred later Saturday according to NATO officials. The deployment of armed drones last week was widely taken as the Obama administration moving to quell criticism it was not doing enough in Libya while not substantially escalating U.S. involvement. (New York Times, LA Times, Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 23: NATO aircraft conducted 144 sorties on April 23, of which 56 were designated strikes sorties. Near Tripoli, one surface to air site was destroyed. In Misrata, one tank, one command and control bunker, one semi truck, three heavy equipment transporters, four multiple rocket launchers, two vehicle storage buildings, one antenna, and three artillery rocket launchers were destroyed. In Sirte, one bunker, one tank, one armored vehicle, and three other vehicles were destroyed. At sea, 18 vessels were hailed, none were boarded or diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 22: Senator John McCain, visiting rebels in Benghazi, urged the United States and its allies to intensify its airstrikes and facilitate weapons deliveries help the rebels in a call for escalating the U.S. role in the intervention. McCain also urged the United States to officially recognize the rebel government. McCain urged NATO to bomb Qaddafi’s television station. McCain also reiterated his opposition to deploying U.S. ground forces to assist the rebels; however, he did urge the United States and others to deliver arms to the rebels citing the precedent of the U.S. funneling weapons through Pakistan to the Afghan mujahedeen in the 1980s to fight the Soviets. McCain stated he was not concerned about Islamic extremism taking hold among the rebels, warning that allowing the current standoff to continue could create more extremism. (LA Times)

APRIL 22: NATO aircraft conducted 138 sorties on April 22, of which 59 were designated strikes sorties. Near Tripoli, two command and control bunkers were destroyed. In Misrata, three tanks, one bunker, one early warning radar, and one surface to air radar were destroyed. Around Zintan, two tanks and two bunkers were destroyed, around Mizdah, three ammunition storage bunkers were destroyed. Around Ras Lanuf, one tank and an armored vehicle were destroyed.   At sea, 47 vessels were hailed and one was boarded. (NATO)

APRIL 22: Two U.S. Predator drones, armed with Hellfire missiles, flew their first mission in Libya before bad weather forced the sortie to be cut short. The drones are able to stay aloft for long periods of time, fly low enough to positively identify targets, and carry smaller payloads than those found on NATO’s ground attack aircraft. These capabilities are in demand in Libya; fast-moving NATO aircraft have had trouble recognizing enemy vehicles, and combat is increasingly focused in crowded urban areas where heavier bombs can inflict civilian casualties. (Washington Post, National Journal)

APRIL 22: Senator John McCain, a strong advocate for supporting the rebel forces, met with the National Transitional Council during an unannounced visit to Benghazi. In addition to meeting with rebel leaders, McCain visited a hospital and the Benghazi courthouse where the opposition movement first coalesced. During his trip, he Senator McCain is the most prominent member of the U.S. government to travel to Libya. (BBC, Washington Post, New York Times.)

APRIL 22: Secretary of Defense Robert Gates stated that, despite the deployment of Predator drones, the U.S. has no plans to deploy combat troops to Libya. Gates defended the level of U.S involvement, pointing out that the U.S. was “the most stretched militarily” of all the NATO countries and that Libya did not represent a “vital interest” of the U.S. Drawing upon the American experience in Iraq and the Balkans, Gates said that “Regime change imposed from the outside…is incredibly difficult.” (National Journal, Washington Post, New York Times)

APRIL 22: Admiral Mike Mullen, U.S Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, described the conflict in Libya as “certainly moving towards a stalemate.” He went on to say that Qaddafi must leave power, but it was not clear how long it would take before that would happen. Additionally, in the first statements about al Qaeda since Admiral James Stavridis testified before Congress, Mullen said “I’ve seen no al Qaeda representation there [Libya] at all.” (Washington Post)

APRIL 22: British Prime Minister David Cameron stated that the recent deployment of British military advisors to Libya does not represent mission creep, and reinforced that UN Resolution 1973 prohibits putting an invading army in Libya. Cameron also pushed for additional international sanctions that would restrict the flow of revenue from oil sales to Qaddafi’s regime. (Washington Times)

APRIL 21: NATO aircraft conducted 152 sorties yesterday, of which 62 were designated strikes sorties. Near Tripoli, eight ammunition storage bunkers were destroyed while in Misrata one tank and one anti-aircraft gun were bombed. In eastern Libya, four tanks, five military vehicles were destroyed near Ajdabiya and two tanks and one rocket launcher were destroyed in Brega. NATO aircraft bombed four military trucks near Qaddafi’s hometown of Sirte, and five ammunition storage bunkers near Mizdah. At sea, 40 vessels were hailed and two were boarded. (NATO)

APRIL 21: President Sarkozy held his first meeting with the leader of the rebel provisional government, Mustafa Abdel Jalil. Sarkozy promised the rebels stronger military action and reportedly won approval from NATO to intensify airstrikes against Qaddafi. He has ordered six additional French fighter aircraft moved from Corsica to airbases in Crete where they could more easily strike Libya. France has stepped up the number of sorties its warplanes fly over Libya in the past week to 41 from an average of about 30. French airstrikes destroyed several Qaddafi military vehicles and tanks near Misrata, two ground-to-air missile emplacements and a communications center in the Sirte region in the past week. French warplanes have flown a total of 225 sorties since the allied intervention last month. (Reuters, Washington Post, Reuters)

APRIL 20: The Obama administration reportedly refused a French request last week to return to the campaign with the full force of its air and naval power. The Obama administration currently has no plans to send U.S. military advisors to assist the rebels alongside Britain, France and Italy. This has added to European complaints over the limited U.S. involvement, and European officials are complaining Obama’s decision to withhold U.S. warplanes from conducting airstrikes has hampered NATO’s campaign. NATO command, however, is not involved in the British, French and Italian efforts to send military advisers and other assistance to the rebel forces. (Washington Post)

APRIL 20: NATO aircraft conducted 132 sorties over Libya on Wednesday, of which 50 were designated strike sorties. NATO airstrikes destroyed two heavy equipment transporters, three armored vehicles, and an ammunition storage site in Tripoli and two tanks, a communications tower and a radar station in Misrata. In Zintan, NATO airstrikes destroyed a tank and two rocket launchers. At sea, 22 vessels were hailed by NATO warships to determine their destination and cargo, one boarding was conducted and two vessels were diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 20: The rebel National Transitional Council has formally requested arms from Italy, which reportedly agreed. The NTC spokesman indicated the rebels had asked Italy for attack helicopters and heavy military equipment. (Reuters)

APRIL 20: U.S. and European intelligence agencies have assessed that Qaddafi has solidified his position in Tripoli and most of western Libya, allowing him to possibly maintain an indefinite standoff with rebels and NATO. Several U.S. and European officials have said Qaddafi’s forces will soon have regrouped enough to consider launching a new assault against Benghazi. (Reuters)

APRIL 20: Vice President Joe Biden insisted that U.S. strike aircraft, requested by France, were not necessary to achieve NATO’s objectives in Libya. Biden said, "If the Lord Almighty extricated the U.S. out of NATO and dropped it on the planet of Mars so we were no longer participating, it is bizarre to suggest that NATO and the rest of the world lacks the capacity to deal with Libya -- it does not…Occasionally other countries lack the will, but this is not about capacity.” (Reuters)

APRIL 20: President Obama spoke with Prime Minister David Cameron on Wednesday and discussed the need to increase political and economic pressure on Qaddafi and his regime. Obama has backed the British, French and Italian move to send military advisers to help rebels fighting Qaddafi, but has no plans to send U.S. advisors. (Reuters, BBC, White House)

APRIL 20: Evidence has surfaced that Qaddafi’s regime is already evading U.N. economic sanctions and importing gasoline into western Libya from Tunisia using intermediaries who transfer the fuel between ships in Tunisia. (Reuters)

APRIL 20: The Libyan Government claimed a NATO airstrike in the Bir al-Ghanam area southwest of the capital Tripoli killed four people and destroyed civilian property and farmland. The commander of NATO's Libya campaign, Lieutenant-General Charles Bouchard, advised Libyan civilians to stay away from Qaddafi’s forces to assist NATO in carrying out effective airstrikes. (Reuters)

APRIL 20: The U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navi Pillay, indicated that the Libyan government's use of cluster munitions and heavy weapons in Misrata may amount to a war crime under international law. (Reuters)

APRIL 20: France and Italy announced they would join Britain in sending a small number of military advisors to support the rebels. French officials stated the number of French advisors would be in the single digits and help organize the protection of the civilian population. Italian Defense Minister Ignazio La Russa, after a meeting with British Defense Secretary Liam Fox, stated that Italy would send 10 military instructors to assist the rebels. President Nicolas Sarkozy, in a meeting with rebel leader Mustafa Abdel-Jalil in Paris, pledged to intensify French airstrikes against Qaddafi’s forces. The French government spokesman reaffirmed that France did not envision deploying ground forces into Libya, however, the French Defense Minister Gerard Longuet said it was “a real issue” that deserved to be considered by the U.N. Security Council. The deployment of military advisors from Britain, Italy and France is stirring controversy within each country’s government and parliament over their escalating involvement in Libya. (New York Times, BBC, Washington Post)

APRIL 20: The Obama administration has informed Congress that it is providing $25 million in non-lethal aid to the rebels. The U.S. assistance would provide the rebels with vehicles, fuel trucks and fuel bladders, ambulances, medical equipment, protective vests, binoculars, and non-secure radios.  According to the State Department, the administration has been working with the rebel government to assess its security capabilities and shortfalls, and recognizes, “the key role that the rebels have played in the protection of civilians.” (Washington Times)

APRIL 20: Officials from the Pentagon and the National Security Council have indicated they do not have enough details of the British plan to deploy military advisors to help the rebels to assess how effective it might be. The officials stressed there are no plans to send U.S. military advisers to Libya. The Obama administration, however, has not ruled put providing the rebels with “stepped-up non-lethal assistance” and that sending arms to the rebels has not been taken off the table. (Wall Street Journal, Washington Post)

APRIL 20: NATO commanders conceded that they are unable to stop pro-Qaddafi forces from shelling Misrata. NATO has been unable to strike Qaddafi’s artillery from the air for fear of accidently hitting civilians. NATO Brig. Gen. Mark van Uhm said, “There is a limit to what can be achieved by airpower to stop fighting in a city.” Uhm indicated that NATO had destroyed more than forty tanks and armored personnel vehicles in Misrata. Admiral Giampaolo Di Paola, chairman of NATO’s military committee, said that while NATO airstrikes have done quite significant damage to Qaddafi’s heavy weaponry, the weapons the regime has were still considerable and any additional allied contributions would be welcome. NATO officials said they did not yet see a need for ground troops in Libya. (Associated Press, Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 20: The British military advisory team being deployed to assist the rebels will be composed of about a dozen officers including several colonels and majors and is set to be inserted within 48 hours. The advisors reportedly will not be involved in rebel military operations or planning and will remain in rebel military bases in Benghazi. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 20: France reportedly sent covert special operations forces into Libya three weeks ago to assess the impact of allied airstrikes. (New York Times)

APRIL 19: The United Kingdom announced it was sending a team of up to twenty senior military officers to Benghazi to act as military advisors to the rebels in order to help them organize their forces. British Foreign Minister William Hague said the military advisers would work with the National Transitional Council to, “improve their organizational structures, communications and logistics, including how best to distribute humanitarian aid and deliver medical assistance.” He said the advisors will not be involved in supplying the rebels with weapons or assisting in their attacks against Qaddafi’s forces. The officers will likely not be wearing military uniforms, but rather civilian clothes, although they will probably carry side arms. Britain has already deployed SAS teams on the ground and is supplying the rebels with non-lethal aid including body armor. The move has already been met with opposition in Parliament from members of Prime Minister David Cameron’s Conservative Party and the opposition Labour Party, who demanded the Parliament be included in any decision to take sides in the Civil War. (Washington Post, Associated Press, BBC)

APRIL 19: The European Union has outlined a provisional plan that could see troops dispatched to Misrata to protect humanitarian aid deliveries if requested by the United Nations. The 27 EU nations agreed earlier this month that it would be willing to launch such a mission at the U.N.’s request, but it has not made such. The EU military operation would not have a combat role, but could potentially involve hundreds of military personnel to secure supply lines into Libya. It would also be tasked with humanitarian efforts at refugee camps along the Tunisian and Egyptian borders. It could involve German troops which are part of the two standing EU battle groups. The other European nations involved in the force, including several non-NATO members, are the Netherlands, Finland, Austria, Lithuania, Sweden, Norway, Estonia and Ireland. According to EU officials, less than 1,000 troops would be involved in the operation. Approval for the EU mission from the United Nations, however, seems unlikely given Russia and China’s opposition to the way NATO has conducted UNSCR 1973. (Reuters, CNN, Washington Post)

APRIL 19: While the U.K. has dispatched military advisors to Libya, France has reiterated it is opposed to the idea of sending its troops into Libya to break the military stalemate, even special operations forces to help conduct precision airstrikes. (Reuters, BBC)

APRIL 19: Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini, speaking with Transitional National Council President Mustafa Abdul Jalil, said that a meeting of the Libyan Contact Group in early May in Rome would seek ways to enabling the rebels to sell their oil on world markets. The Contact Group would look at ways of unfreezing Qaddafi’s assets and providing them to the rebels. (Reuters)

APRIL 19: NATO warplanes struck a column of pro-Qaddafi reinforcements on their way from the city of Beni Walid to the besieged city of Misrata overnight according to rebel sources. Rebel fighters said that if the reinforcements had made their way to Misrata, it would have been the sixth consignment of fighters sent by Qaddafi. NATO also bombed a radar installation near the Misrata port. NATO airstrikes have been heavily targeting the command and control infrastructure of the elite 32nd Brigade, headed by Khamis Qaddafi, destroying its headquarters in Misrata and Tripoli. (Wall Street Journal, Reuters)

APRIL 19: Russian officials said that Western attempts to topple Qaddafi were in violation of UNSCR 1973 because it only authorized the use of military force to protect Libyan civilians. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said the U.N. Security Council never intended to topple Qaddafi and that it was crucial to establish a ceasefire. (Reuters)

APRIL 18: NATO warplanes destroyed the main telecommunications tower in Sirte along with two other stations in the region, affecting communications in the region in an effort to cut off pro-Qaddafi forces’ lines of communications and allow the rebels to advance. The three stations provide communication services for the Libyan government and civilians. (Reuters, Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 18: U.S. officials have conceded in private that several of their assumptions before the intervention in Libya were faulty. Among the mistakes was the belief that airpower alone would sufficiently degrade Qaddafi’s military and force him to halt attacks on civilians, and that the United States could leave the airstrikes primarily to Britain, France and other European countries. (LA Times)

APRIL 18: U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon appealed to pro-Qaddafi forces to cease fire around Misrata due to the growing humanitarian crisis in the besieged city. Ki-moon indicated the U.N. would establish a humanitarian presence in Tripoli and Misrata. The UN signed an agreement with the Qaddafi government on Sunday that would pave the way for food, aid and medicine to be allowed into Misrata and allow civilians to leave. (Washington Post)

APRIL 18: According to a senior U.S. military official, NATO airstrikes have destroyed nearly forty percent of Libya's military equipment and headquarters facilities. There are signs that Qaddafi’s forces, including the elite 32nd Brigade, are facing logistical problems and struggling to provide ammunition, transportation and food to troops deployed in the field. (LA Times)

APRIL 18: The U.S. Air Force is flying two unarmed Predator drones over Libya to help NATO conduct surveillance. (LA Times)

APRIL 18: NATO aircraft conducted 143 sorties over Libya on Monday, of which 53 were designated strike sorties. NATO airstrikes destroyed nine ammunition bunkers and the headquarters of the 32nd Brigade in Tripoli and six surface-to-air missiles, four tanks, three air defense missile sites and one mobile rocket launcher in Misrata. In Zintan, NATO airstrikes destroyed three tanks, one anti-aircraft weapons system and one armored vehicle. NATO warplanes also destroyed a building in Brega. At sea, 38 vessels were hailed by NATO warships to determine their destination and cargo but none were boarded or diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 18: At a UN meeting to discuss the dire humanitarian situation in Libya, British International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said Britain would pay £1.5m to charter ships to help evacuate 5,000 civilians and migrant workers trapped in the besieged city of Misrata and provide civilians medical supplies. (BBC)

APRIL 18: Qatar, which confirmed it is marketing the rebels’ crude oil, has also arranged four shipments of refined fuel to Benghazi to support the rebels and indicated it was ready to send more. Meanwhile, attacks by pro-Qaddafi forces have shutdown rebel crude production at most of their fields after they sustained damage, and it would be several weeks at least until they were repaired and back online. (Reuters)

APRIL 17: NATO aircraft conducted 145 sorties over Libya on Sunday, of which 60 were designated strike sorties. NATO warplanes struck seven ammunition bunkers in Tripoli and four air defense radar stations in Misrata. In Sirte, NATO aircraft hit two aircraft hangars and one ammunition depot. In Zintan, NATO airstrikes hit four launchers, one air defense radar station, and an ammunition storage facility. At sea, a total of 22 vessels were hailed by NATO warships to determine their destination and cargo and one boarding was conducted, but it was not diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 16: Qatari Emir Sheik Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani confirmed that that his country would provide the rebels with weapons and that anti-tank weapons may have already reached them. Qatar is likely providing the rebels with the French MILAN anti-tank wire-guided missile. Rebel leader Gen. Abdel Fattah Younes indicated that the rebels have begun receiving weapons from abroad. Further, Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini indicated his country strongly supported sending arms to the rebels, but did not confirm if it had sent arms. (New York Times, Guardian)

APRIL 16: The United States and its allies have begun looking for a country that would be willing to provide Qaddafi exile if he were forced from Libya. The country would most likely be in Africa, and the African Union has quietly begun looking for a host for Qaddafi as well. Further, U.S. intelligence reports indicate that no rebel leader has yet emerged as a replacement for Qaddafi and there are fears that if he is removed, tribal warfare could break out across the country. (New York Times)

APRIL 16: NATO aircraft conducted 144 sorties over Libya on Saturday, of which 42 were designated strike sorties. NATO warplanes destroyed two ammunition bunkers and one surface-to-air missile site in Tripoli and one APC in Misrata. In Sirte, NATO aircraft hit two tanks, two equipment transports, one artillery piece, one tank transporter, four ammunition storage sites and one ammunition bunker. In Zintan, a NATO airstrike destroyed an ammunition bunker. At sea, a total of 20 vessels were hailed by NATO warships to determine their destination and cargo, no vessels were boarded, but one vessel was diverted. (NATO)

APRIL 15: Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper said Canada would not make any decision on boosting its role in the NATO-led air campaign until after its elections on May 2. Canada already has sent seven warplanes to participate in the operation and is one of the few countries that has authorized its warplanes to conduct airstrikes. Canada’s announcement came amid pressure from Britain and France for its NATO allies to increase their participation. (BBC, Reuters)

APRIL 15: Several NATO members are reportedly running low on their stockpiles of precision-guided bombs, particularly Britain and France who are conducting the bulk of the airstrikes, less than a month into the Libyan air campaign. Europeans have been slow to modify their aircraft and other weapons systems to accommodate U.S. weapons. Several U.S. military officials indicated they were anticipating being recalled to conduct airstrikes, while other U.S. officials have indicated that Italy and Arab states may send warplanes to conduct ground attacks. (Washington Post)

APRIL 15: U.S. and NATO intelligence officials believe the allied no-fly zone and air strikes will be able to stop Qaddafi’s forces from moving against Benghazi. The intelligence officials, however, indicated that the rebel forces appeared to be too disorganized and poorly trained to defeat Qaddafi militarily, and that it could take years to organize, arm and train them to do so. The realistic outlook, according to U.S. and European officials, was an indefinite stalemate between the rebels backed by NATO airpower and Qaddafi’s forces. Meanwhile, U.S. officials have indicated that Saudi Arabia and Qatar are willing to provide weapons and other support to the rebels. There are also signs that Qatar is supplying some light weapons, including shoulder-fired anti-tank rockets, to the rebels. Pentagon officials have indicated the U.S. is considering following the British in providing non-lethal support to the rebels such as personnel protection vehicles and medical supplies. (Reuters)

APRIL 15: President Barack Obama, Prime Minister David Cameron and President Nicolas Sarkozy published an open letter on Friday that said NATO must continue its military operations in Libya to protect civilians as long as Qaddafi remains in power. Further, they wrote that to allow Qaddafi to remain would be an "unconscionable betrayal" to the Libyan people and that, “Britain, France and the United States will not rest until the United Nations Security Council resolutions have been implemented and the Libyan people can choose their own future.” (New York Times, BBC)

APRIL 15: NATO is considering creating a secure sea corridor to Libya backed by allied warships to allow merchant vessels to boost trade with Libyan rebels in the east and open a humanitarian corridor to Misrata. Earlier this week, Qatar had assisted the rebels in selling a $100 million of oil, which was shipped out of ports in eastern Libya, but most merchant vessels and oil tankers will not go near Libyan ports because of the risk of attack and high insurance costs. Shipping experts warn that a NATO naval escort would still not be able to protect the ships from ground attacks or sabotage once they are in port, where they are most vulnerable anyway. (Reuters)

APRIL 15: France and Britain want to expand NATO airstrikes to the logistics and command centers of Qaddafi's army are have been spared, rather than start arming Libyan rebels. (Reuters)

APRIL 14: President Obama met with Qatar's Emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani at the White House on Thursday, and praised Qatar for its role in Libya. President Obama also expressed his appreciation of the leadership and cooperation that the emir had shown on democracy in the Middle East. (AFP, Reuters)

APRIL 14: At a two-day NATO summit in Berlin on Libya, U.S. and other officials played down the emerging differences in the alliance amid calls to escalate its air campaign against Qaddafi. French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe asked Secretary of State Hillary Clinton for the United States to contribute more warplanes to the effort, but was reportedly rebuffed. One European official suggested NATO needed around eight more planes capable of precision bombing, such as the U.S. F-15 or F-16 or similarly equipped aircraft. However, U.S. officials claim that NATO has not officially asked for additional assets and that they were already providing a significant portion of support aircraft. (Washington Post)

APRIL 14: Secretary of State Hilary Clinton, in a speech in Berlin, laid out the actions she deemed essential for the Libya mission. This included improving coordination between NATO and the rebels and ratcheting up economic and diplomatic pressure on Qaddafi. Clinton also said planning for a post-Qaddafi Libya must begin. (Washington Post, Reuters)

APRIL 14: Turkey is positioning itself to act as an intermediary between NATO and Qaddafi. Turkey is the only NATO member with an open embassy in Tripoli and a consulate in rebel-held Benghazi, and is hoping the alliance formulates a diplomatic solution at the Berlin summit. This would include establishing direct communication with Qaddafi, arranging his exit, and helping the rebels establish a new representative government. Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan has maintained contact via telephone with Qaddafi and his sons and has been urging Qadadfi to leave Libya peacefully. Secretary of State Hilary Clinton met with Turkish officials in Berlin to discuss an exit path for Qaddafi. (Washington Post)

APRIL 14: Arab League head Amr Moussa called for a cease-fire to put an end to fighting and ensure the territorial integrity of Libya. (LA Times)

APRIL 14: NATO warplanes struck a military installation in Tripoli, destroying the anti-aircraft system. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 14: Plans for the U.N. Security Council to expand the list of Libyan officials and firms subject to U.N. sanctions, including Qaddafi’s wife and more subsidiaries of the Libyan National Oil Corporation, have been held up by Russian, Chinese and Indian demands for more time to consider them. (Reuters)

APRIL 14: French President Nicolas Sarkozy met with rebel leader Suliman Fortea in Paris, and suggested if NATO and the United States were hesitant to intensify their involvement in Libya then France and Britain should consider acting alone. (Reuters)

APRIL 14: While Britain and France have been pressing for more aircraft and airstrikes by NATO allies including the United States, U.S. officials have said additional strike aircraft would not necessarily lead to a more effective air campaign, suggesting airstrikes were not being limited by capability but by viable targets. (Washington Post)

APRIL 14: NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said that military power alone could not solve the Libyan crisis and that a political solution must also be pursed. Since NATO took command of operations in Libya, only 14 of the alliance’s 28 members are actively participating. Further, only six nations are allowing their aircraft to conduct airstrikes. (New York Times)

APRIL 13: U.S. warplanes have conducted three airstrikes against Libyan surface-to-air missiles since the Obama administration announced it was shifting the United States to a support role in the NATO air campaign. The strikes were carried out by F-16 fighters and EA-18Gs. U.S. officials had previously stated that U.S. airstrikes had ended on April 4th. Since NATO took command, 97 of the 134 missions to monitor Libyan air defense sites have been flown by U.S. aircraft. Since April 1, U.S. warplanes have conducted 35% of the sorties, 77% of the aerial refueling missions and 27% of the surveillance flights for NATO. (LA Times, Washington Times)

APRIL 13: The Libyan Contact Group meeting in Doha agreed to provide the rebels with material support, although it is unclear if this included supplying the rebels with arms. Britain said it would supply the rebels with 1,000 sets of body armor on top of the 100 satellite phones it has already sent, and it was going to send the rebels more non-lethal equipment. The French reportedly do not plan to arm the rebels, while the Italians and Qataris have argued strongly to supply the rebels with weapons. Belgium and Germany strongly opposed sending the rebels arms. Despite the disagreements in NATO, rebel officials indicated they were in talks with friendly countries to secure arms. (Reuters, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, BBC)

APRIL 13: On Wednesday, NATO conducted 153 sorties, of which 58 were “strike sorties”. NATO airstrikes destroyed thirteen pro-Qaddafi bunkers, one tank and one APC around Tripoli. Allied airstrikes also destroyed three Multiple Rocket Launchers in the vicinity of Brega. (NATO)

APRIL 13: NATO is reportedly struggling to conduct the air campaign effectively without the United States in the lead and providing the majority of the forces. While the British and French have called on NATO to step up the air campaign, the Obama administration has expressed its confidence in NATO’s ability to carry out the mission in Libya without a heavy U.S. involvement. In addition to arguing that the U.S. military already being heavily committed in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, American officials have suggested that Libya’s history and proximity to Europe make it a “European problem,” and a French problem in particular because they had argued for aggressive intervention. (Washington Post, New York Times, Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 13: While seventeen nations have contributed about 175 aircraft to the NATO mission, only France and the United Kingdom have allowed their warplanes to fly without caveats. Norway, Denmark and Canada have also allowed their aircraft to conduct airstrikes on a more limited basis, possibly not against vehicles. Meanwhile, the Netherlands, Sweden, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and others have taken more passive roles and prevented their forces from flying airstrike sorties at all. The United States is also only providing about 40 support aircraft to perform refueling, reconnaissance and other specialized roles that few if any other countries posses. (Washington Post, New York Times, Christian Science Monitor)

APRIL 13: The United States reportedly has about 40 aircraft in reserve, including A-10s and AC-130 gunships. Several NATO officials have suggested the United States make the A-10s available again, as other NATO members lack similar low-flying warplanes capable of discriminating between pro-Qaddafi forces and the rebels. U.S. officials have stated that the A-10s are available if NATO requests them, but the alliance has not. British and French warplanes are having problems differentiating between targets from high above the battlefield other than Qaddafi’s tanks and other heavy equipment. Some allies have also expressed concern they are running low on their supplies of precision-guided bombs as the air campaign continues. (Washington Post, New York Times)

APRIL 13: NATO, Arab and African ministers met in Doha, Qatar for the first meeting of the “Contact Group on Libya” which was established two weeks ago after a similar meeting in London. The three main goals of the Doha Summit have been described as maintaining pressure on Qaddafi and ensuring he leaves power, discussing a stabilization plan for peace-building, and endorsing a political process for a democratic Libya. (BBC)

APRIL 13: Italian Foreign Minister Maurizio Massari said NATO countries should send arms to the rebels, saying that was the best way to guarantee the rebels’ defense. Italy’s suggestion implied that the NATO air strikes were insufficient in protecting the insurgents and Benghazi from persistent assaults by pro-Qaddafi forces. However, Belgium and Germany have countered that providing arms to the rebels would go beyond the scope of the U.N. Security Council resolution. Further, Germany has said proposals to fund the rebels from assets seized from Qaddafi could pose legal problems. (Washington Post, BBC)

APRIL 13: Dutch Brigadier General van Uhm, commander of NATO operations, indicated that due to allied airstrikes, pro-Qaddafi forces could not, “fight how they want to, where they want to or with what weapons they want to.” NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen, in Doha, dismissed criticism that NATO was moving too slowly in Libya. (New York Times, Reuters)

APRIL 13: UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon told delegates in Doha that the humanitarian situation in Libya was dire and that nearly half a million people had fled the Libya since the war began. Ban stated that on an average day, approximately 2,700 Libyans are crossing into Tunisia and Egypt and that roughly 330,000 Libyans had been internally displaced. Of Libya’s six million people, Ban said as many as 3.6 million could require humanitarian assistance. (BBC)

APRIL 13: The Ministry of Defense stated that the RAF Typhoon had been used for the first time to attack on pro-Qaddafi forces. A Typhoon was on patrol over Libya with an RAF Tornado GR4, when it destroyed two Libyan T-72 main battle tanks with laser-guided Paveway II bombs near Misrata. (BBC, The Daily Telegraph)

APRIL 13: At the Contact Group conference in Doha, British Foreign Secretary William Hague called for the establishment of a temporary financial mechanism to assist the rebel government in paying for public sector costs. Hague recognized a military stalemate may ensure, but that economic and political pressure could be used to oust Qaddafi. The rebels have indicated they needed $1.5 billion in aid for civilians. (Reuters, BBC)

APRIL 12: NATO warplanes destroyed 16 pro-Qaddafi tanks, an anti-aircraft gun and a pickup truck in airstrikes in Libya on Tuesday. NATO indicated that 12 of the tanks were destroyed around Misrata while four tanks, a pickup truck and the anti-aircraft gun were destroyed southeast of Sirte. NATO flew 159 sorties on Tuesday, which included 60 strike missions. Since March 31, NATO aircraft have flown 2,038 sorties, of which 832 were strike sorties. (Reuters, NATO)

APRIL 12: Qatar has confirmed it was behind last week's sale of more than $100 million of crude oil from rebel-held Libyan oil fields. Qatar also stated it has been sending gasoline and other vital fuel supplies to the rebel capital of Benghazi. The rebels lack the capacity to produce their own gasoline. (Associated Press)

APRIL 12: The European Union extended its economic sanctions against Libya, freezing the assets of 26 companies and two people in order to ratchet up pressure on Qaddafi. The additional EU sanctions include 11 Libyan energy companies that had avoided earlier EU sanctions, bringing the total number of Libyan firms under EU sanctions to 46. (Reuters)

APRIL 12: The rebel government in Benghazi rejected the African Union’s proposal to end the conflict. Rebel leaders insisted that there would be no cease fire or peace deal unless Qaddafi and his family agreed to leave power immediately. (Washington Post, Reuters)

APRIL 12: France and Britain urged NATO to intensify its air campaign against Qaddafi’s forces and urged the alliance to do more to protect noncombatants from the regime’s attacks. French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe and British Foreign Minister William Hague, whose nations compose the main military effort in the NATO campaign after the drawdown by the United States, suggested the alliance’s current efforts were insufficient and they were running out of patience. They claimed NATO needed to target Qaddafi’s heavy weaponry, but they were limited in their ground attack capabilities. Dutch Brig. Gen. Mark Van Uhm countered that the alliance was successfully enforcing an arms embargo and a no-fly zone while protecting civilians. (New York Times, Associated Press, Washington Post, BBC)

APRIL 12: Mussa Kussa, Qaddafi’s former intelligence chief and foreign minister who defected to the United Kingdom two weeks ago, was allowed to leave Britain for Qatar to attend a conference in Doha where he would “share his insights” on the Qaddafi regime. Koussa was recently questioned for his roles in the 1988 Lockerbie plane bombing and Libya’s arming of the IRA. (New York Times, Associated Press, BBC)

APRIL 12: Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton reiterated the Obama administration’s call for Qaddafi to leave power and the country. Clinton said the United States would welcome a cease-fire, but she insisted that the regime pull its forces back from areas where they have forcibly entered. Further, reports indicate that economic sanctions may not be crippling Qaddafi’s regime, which has recently taken steps to mitigate NATO and international efforts to isolate Libya. (New York Times, Washington Post)

APRIL 11: NATO stated that its warplanes had hit 11 tanks and five other vehicles belonging to Qaddafi’s forces in airstrikes near Misrata and Ajdabiya. Qaddafi’s forces have intensified their assault on Misrata, for the first time firing truck-mounted, Russian-made Grad rockets into the city, while rebels have advanced half-way between Ajdabiya and Brega, at a small outpost called al-Arbaeen. (Washington Post, Reuters)

APRIL 11: Qaddafi reportedly accepted a ceasefire plan proposed by a delegation from the African Union (AU), which had arrived in Libya over the weekend to broker such an agreement. The AU delegation included South African President Jacob Zuma and the presidents of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Mauritania and Uganda. Several of these leaders are considered to have close ties with Qaddafi and have been publically critical of NATO’s intervention. Details of the AU plan were vague, but it does not appear to include any plan for Qaddafi and his family to step down from power and leave Libya, while it calls for an immediate ceasefire and a suspension of NATO airstrikes. AU leaders have also urged NATO to halt its air campaign while they traveled to Benghazi to meet with rebel leaders. The rebels, however, have said any deal that keeps Qaddafi and his family in power is unacceptable. Meanwhile, NATO officials have stated that the regime’s forces have continued shelling Misrata, indicating Qaddafi had not halted his military campaign and that NATO operations would continue to protect Libyan civilians. (Washington Post, BBC, New York Times, Guardian)

APRIL 11: Pentagon officials have released figures that estimate U.S. operations in Libya cost $608 million from March 19 to April 4. The new figures show that the United States spent approximately $55 million a day in the first ten days of the campaign, which dropped to about $8.3 million a day in the seven that followed NATO taking command of the operation. The Pentagon estimates that the U.S.-role in the NATO campaign will cost about $40 million a month. (AFP, Washington Post)

 APRIL 10: The rebels staved off an offensive by pro-Qaddafi forces against Ajdabiya with the help of NATO airstrikes. According to Lt. Gen. Charles Bouchard, NATO warplanes had destroyed 11 tanks out of Ajdabiya. In addition to destroying the regime’s tanks and heavy military equipment, NATO has aimed to cut off Qaddafi’s forces from their supply lines. One airstrike cratered the road leading to Ajdabiya from Brega in an effort to stop large trucks from resupplying Qaddafi’s forces with fuel and ammunition. Further west, NATO warplanes hit two more bunkers stocked with ammunition. NATO also destroyed 14 tanks near Misrata on Saturday, bringing the total number of the regime’s tanks destroyed by airstrikes in the city in three days to 29. (New York Times, Washington Times. AFP)

APRIL 9: The Obama administration and Libyan rebels are trying to decide what to do with the $34 billion the Treasury Department seized from Qaddafi. Rebel leaders have pressured the Obama administration in recent weeks to release some of the money to address shortages of food and medicine caused by the civil war. U.S. officials are hesitant, and say that the funds could wind up with Islamist elements hostile to the United States, including al-Qaeda if the money is not properly accounted for. Rebel leaders then said the United States would not need to distribute cash, but could instead directly pay suppliers for food, medicine and other humanitarian goods. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 9: Two NATO warplanes upheld the no-fly zone against the rebels, forcing a rebel pilot who had taken off in a captured MiG-23 to return to Benina Air Base outside of Benghazi. (New York Times)

APRIL 9: British RAF Tornados destroyed two pro-Qaddafi tanks around Ajdabiya and five in Misrata on Friday. (BBC)

APRIL 9: Rebel leaders, who had been highly critical of NATO airstrikes that have accidently hit rebel forces, said that they must accept accidental deaths caused by NATO airstrikes will occur and the benefits of NATO air power far outweighed the damage caused. Rebel leaders appeared concerned that leveling too much criticism against NATO for the mishaps would cause the alliance to slow the pace of airstrikes against pro-Qaddafi forces. (LA Times, Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 9: Scottish police interviewed Mussa Kussa, the former Libyan foreign minister who recently defected to Britain, for his role in the 1988 Lockerbie bombing. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 8: Rear Adm. Russell Harding, the British deputy commander of the NATO operation announced the alliance had conducted 318 sorties and hit 23 targets over the past 48 hours. In the eight days since NATO assumed command from the United States, it has flown more than 1,500 sorties. Harding said NATO warplanes have been destroying Qaddafi's anti-aircraft missile defenses, T-72 tanks and ammunition dumps, and also hitting pro-Qaddafi forces in Misrata. Harding notes that Qaddafi's forces still pose a threat to NATO warplanes, retaining some latent air defenses, including shoulder-launched missiles that could hit warplanes at up to 15,000 feet. He noted that Qaddafi's forces had begun switching tactics over the last week, leaving their heavy armor behind and using trucks armed with heavy machine guns and anti-aircraft cannons on the front. (Associated Press)

 APRIL 8: Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan proposed a peace plan that would require Qaddafi to withdraw his forces from Misrata and other besieged cities, establish humanitarian corridors for aid and endorse a "comprehensive democratic-change process." The proposal came amid heavy criticism by rebels over Turkey’s cautious Libya policy Libya policy, which the rebels attributed to NATO’s slowing air support. On Tuesday, a rebel ship carrying supplies of weapons from Benghazi to Misrata was intercepted by a Turkish naval vessel participating in NATO’s arms embargo and forced the rebels to turn around. Turkey later tried to send an aide ship to Benghazi with food and medicine, but the rebels turned it away. (Washington Times, Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 8: Germany announced it was prepared to allow its troops to take part in humanitarian aid to Libyan civilians if the United Nations asked the European Union. Germany has previously not participated in the NATO campaign and withdrew its war ships from NATO command in the Mediterranean. (New York Times)

APRIL 7: Rebels said they had informed NATO of their plan to move tanks and other forces into positions outside Ajdabiya. The tanks and bus were parked and were marked with the green, black and red rebel flag. In Naples, Rear Adm. Russell Harding, the British deputy commander of the NATO operation, insisted NATO had not been informed that the rebels were using tanks at the time of the attack. He refused to apologize for the airstrike, he said the situation was extremely fluid and until yesterday NATO did not have information the rebels were using tanks. The rebels have reportedly painted the roofs of their vehicles bright pink to avoid more friendly fire incidents. (New York Times, Reuters, LA Times, Washington Post)

APRIL 7: In congressional testimony, Gen. Ham said the United States was providing some strike aircraft to the NATO campaign that do not need to go through the special approval process recently established, which included AC-130 gunship. Other warplanes, including fighters and the A-10 Thunderbolt, must be requested through U.S. European Command and by U.S. officials, including Defense Secretary Robert Gates. Ham said that process is speedy, but other defense officials have said it can take about a day to approve a NATO request and have the aircraft in position from bases in Europe. Ham said recent bad weather and threats from Qaddafi’s mobile surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) hampered efforts to use low-flying aircraft like the AC-130 and the A-10, which were contributing to the stalemate. Ham also stated it was unlikely the rebel forces could launch an assault on Tripoli and oust Qaddafi, and that the conflict had reached a stalemate. Ham said the U.S. may consider sending troops into Libya with a possible international ground force that could aid the rebels. (Washington Post, Associated Press, McClatchy)

APRIL 7: China is set to buy the first oil cargo from Libyan rebels, in a deal which is likely to clear the way for Europeans to resume badly-needed purchases of Libyan oil. The Liberia-registered tanker Equator, which can carry up to one million barrels of oil, loaded up on Wednesday at Libya's eastern ports of Marsa el Hariga and Tobruk and has begun taking the Libyan crude to China but it was still unclear who buyer is. The vessel is operated by the Greek frim Dynacom Tankers Management Officials while Qatar, who had offered to market Libyan oil for the rebels, denied it was involved in the transfer. Reports that fighting in Libya was damaging the country’s oil fields have been causing global oil prices to surge. (Reuters, Associated Press)

APRIL 7: NATO ambassadors held an unscheduled meeting in Brussels following complaints French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe that the Libya campaign was in risk of getting bogged down unless air support for rebel forces increased. (Washington Post)

APRIL 7: Rebel fighters claimed a NATO airstrike accidently struck their forces between Ajdabiya and Brega, increasing tensions between the alliance and the rebels over coordination of the military campaign. At least thirteen rebels were reported killed in the airstrike and dozens injured. The rebels had been moving more than 30 tanks, armored vehicles, rocket launchers and passenger buses of fighters near the front line between Ajdabiya and Brega when the airstrike occurred. NATO apparently mistook the heavily-armed rebel column as loyalist forces. The attack is the second accidental NATO strike on rebel forces in less than a week. NATO is investigating the incident. (Associated Press, BBC, Reuters)

APRIL 7: U.S. diplomat Chris Stevens, envoy to the Libyan opposition, met with members of the National Transitional Council that were aimed at giving the Americans a sense of how the U.S. can help the rebels. Rebel leaders said they hoped to receive diplomatic recognition from the United States for their provisional government, which has been formally recognized by France, Qatar, and Italy. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 7: Former U.S. congressman Curt Weldon, a Pennsylvania Republican, was scheduled to meet with Qaddafi in Tripoli. Weldon, who has visited Libya regularly since 2004, said he came to Libya on the invitation of Qaddafi’s chief of staff and planned to tell the Libyan leader to step aside. State Department spokesman Mark Toner said Weldon was "in no way acting on behalf of the United States government." (Wall Street Journal, New York Times,

APRIL 7: Omar Fathi Bin Shatwan, Libya’s Energy Minister until 2006, has defected to Europe. Shatwan said several members of Qaddafi’s inner circle wanted to defect, but were too scared to do so. Shatwan, who also served as Qaddafi’s industry minister, had fled from the besieged city of Misrata to Malta by fishing boat. (BBC)

APRIL 6: U.S. and European officials said that pro-Qaddafi forces were hindering the NATO air campaign by hiding tanks and artillery in densely populated areas where the alliance’s warplanes planes cannot hit them without significant risk of civilian casualties. The recent U.S. pullback has meant the withdrawal of A-10 Warthogs and the AC-130 Spectre gunships, which are effective in providing close air support, and air capabilities NATO allies’ lack. Meanwhile, French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe said NATO air strikes in Libya risked getting "bogged down." (Washington Post, New York Times, RFERL)

APRIL 6: Qaddafi wrote a personal letter to President Obama urging him to halt NATO airstrikes. Qaddafi apparently addressed the U.S. president as “our son” and endorsed his reelection campaign in a note riddled with spelling and grammatical errors. The White House has rebuffed Qaddafi’s overture. (Washington Post, BBC)

APRIL 6: Libyan officials claimed British warplanes struck the Sarir oil field, the largest in the country, damaging an oil pipeline, killing three guards and leaving several others wounded. NATO officials denied the airstrike and declared Qaddafi had sabotaged the field in an attempt to block crude oil from getting to Tobruk, where a tanker had recently left carrying $100 million in oil, the rebels’ first oil sale. A rebel spokesman stated that pro-Qaddafi forces were conducting artillery bombardments of rebel-held oilfields around Misla and the Waha, halting production. (Washington Post, RFERL, Associated Press, AFP, Wall Street Journal, Reuters)

APRIL 6: The British government announced that Royal Air Force Typhoon warplanes participating in the Libyan no-fly zone would be switched to ground-attack missions by early next week. (Department of Defense)

APRIL 6: Former U.S. Congressman Curt Weldon, a Republican from Pennsylvania, has arrived in Tripoli for talks with Qaddafi to end the crisis. Weldon arrived in Tripoli on Wednesday after receiving an invitation from Qaddafi. Weldon is one of the few Westerners to meet with Qaddafi since the rebellion began in February. It was not immediately clear why Qaddafi sought to meet with Weldon, though the Congressman was part of congressional delegation that visited Libya in 2004. (Associated Press)

APRIL 6: NATO said the alliance has planned to conduct nearly 200 sorties over Libya on Wednesday, more than Monday's 137 and Tuesday's 186. This came after rebels criticized the alliance for not providing enough air support as they have been slowly pushed back over the last week. (Wall Street Journal, Associated Press)

APRIL 6: NATO has been demanding additional aircraft from allies after the United States, which had been conducting at least half of the Coalition airstrikes, ended its combat role on Monday. Prime Minister David Cameron announced in a visit to British forces in Italy that he was ordering an additional four Typhoons attack aircraft to be deployed, and moving four others from an air-policing role to a ground-attack one. In all, the British now have 20 aircraft deployed in southern Italy for NATO-led operations in Libya. (BBC, Wall Street Journal, Daily Telegraph, Guardian)

APRIL 6: European diplomats said negotiations over a political solution were running along a number of tracks but were being poorly coordinated. Discussions about a truce had gone nowhere because of the regime's insistence that Qaddafi or one of his sons be given a seat at the table. Many diplomats saw power sharing arrangements involving Qaddafi or his family as a non-starter. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 6: According to an assessment by NATO operation's commander, Canadian Lt. Gen. Charles Bouchard, allied airstrikes have destroyed about 30 percent of Qaddafi’s military capacity. NATO chief of allied operations Gen. Van Uhm, refuted rebel claims that the pace of airstrikes had slowed after the alliance took command on March 31. He stated NATO warplanes had conducted 851 sorties since March 31, including 334 missions aimed at spotting or hitting targets. He said Misrata was the alliance’s top priority because of the deteriorating situation on the ground, where rebel forces remain besieged in the city by Qaddafi forces. (New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Department of Defense)

APRIL 5: British Special Forces in Libya have begun equipping rebels with mobile phones, which is seen as the first step towards arming them. British Foreign Secretary William Hague, when asked whether the rebels had been given missile guidance systems, said, “I don’t want to go into details of the exact specifications. If I did that it would be easier for the regime to interfere with those telephones in the future.” (The Mirror)

APRIL 5: A NATO airstrike struck a convoy of eight pro-Qaddafi vehicles advancing toward rebel positions just outside of Brega. The airstrike hit two vehicles, prompting the others to turn back into the city. The strikes followed continued battles between the two sides inside and around the city. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 5: Army Gen. Carter Ham informed members of the House Armed Services Committee that U.S. aircraft have moved into a support role, but there were still scenarios that might require the United States to take the operational lead such as search and rescue of a downed NATO pilot. Ham declined to say how fast the U.S. could approve a NATO airstrike request, other than as “quick.” Ham stated the U.S. military continues to fly aerial refueling tankers, attack aircraft, and manned and unmanned intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft in Libya. (Military Times)

APRIL 5: British warplanes destroyed six armored fighting vehicles and six tanks around Misrata and Sirte. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 5: Algerian Deputy Foreign Minister Abdelkader Messahel expressed concern at the “increasingly noticeable presence” of al-Qaeda in the Magreb in Libya and the circulation of weapons that could be exploited by regional terrorist groups. Among the areas of concern are the rebel-seized arms depots in the east, including the 60-bunker Hight Razma facility on the eastern outskirts of Benghazi and a 35-bunker facility on the eastern outskirts of Ajdabiyah, which are stacked with weapons and ammunition, and very poorly guarded. (Reuters)

APRIL 5: Luis Moreno-Ocampo, a prosecutor for the International Criminal Court, said evidence existed that Qaddafi officials had decided to kill unarmed protestors opposed to the regime rule in January, before unrest had even spread to Libya from Tunisia and Egypt. (Reuters)

APRIL 5: The U.S. Air Force has 39 support aircraft participating in the NATO campaign. The Air Force is spending approximately $4 million each day for its role in Libya, and has expended $75 million since March 19 when operations began, according to Pentagon officials. (The Hill)

APRIL 5: U.S. envoy Chris Stevens arrived in Benghazi to begin talks on possible financial assistance to the rebels. Stevens is a former U.S. Embassy official in Tripoli and the highest-ranking U.S. official to travel to Libya since the uprising. According to the State Department, he will explore ways to open the funding for the opposition which is urgently short of cash and supplies. Stevens is expected to remain in Benghazi for several days, but has brought no promises of military support or diplomatic recognition from Washington. (Washington Post)

APRIL 5: Gen. Marc Van Uhm, chief of allied operations, stated that NATO forces, joined by aircraft from Sweden, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, flew 150 sorties missions on Monday, striking pro-Qaddafi forces on 14 of them. The airstrikes struck an active rocket launcher in al-Brega, an air defense installation, and military vehicles near Misrata and ammunition storage facilities belonging to pro-Qaddafi forces. According to Pentagon officials, U.S. warplanes ended their combat role in Libya at 6 p.m. Monday. One of the final U.S. attacks came 15 minutes before the deadline, with Marine Harrier jets striking pro-Qaddafi targets south of Misrata. (CNN, LA Times)

APRIL 5: The Federal Bureau of Investigation has begun questioning Libyan nationals in the United States in an effort to identify pro-Qaddafi spies or terrorists, and collect any information that might assist NATO military operations. There have been concerns among U.S. officials that Qaddafi may try to stage terrorist attacks against American targets in revenge for the bombing campaign, a tactic Qaddafi used in the 1980s and 1990s. U.S. counterterrorism officials said the threat of a Libyan-sponsored terrorist attack was slightly higher for Europe than for the United States, and that European officials were also watching for terror plots directed by the Qaddafi regime. FBI began conducting interviews this week, focusing on Libyans staying in the United States on visas. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 5: U.S. and NATO officials claim that recent cloudy weather has hampered their ability to conduct airstrike missions by limiting pilots’ ability to visually confirm their targets before firing, a requirement under the restrictive rules of engagement imposed in operations in order to minimize civilian casualties. U.S. military officials have also said they are having difficulty distinguishing between pro-Qaddafi and rebel forces after Qaddafi forces started using civilian vehicles. Further frustrating the air campaign, pro-Qaddafi forces have started hiding military equipment in populated areas and using civilians as human shields. (Associated Press, CNN)

APRIL 4: The United States has begun to withdrawal its warplanes from airstrike missions in Libya. U.S. warplanes currently account for 90 of the 206 aircraft deployed by NATO in Operation Unified Protector. U.S. aircraft are being put on standby and future U.S. airstrikes must be requested by NATO and approved by the Pentagon. The United States, however, will continue to provide military support to the operation in terms of AWACS, electronic warfare aircraft and aerial refueling tankers. (Wall Street Journal, New York Times)

APRIL 4: U.S. warplanes struck pro-Qaddafi targets near the cities of Sirte and Brega on the last day of U.S. combat missions in Libya. Air Force A-10 Thunderbolt planes attacked near Brega while AV-8B Harrier jets struck near Sirte. Brig. Gen. Van Uhm, chief of operations at NATO, stated allied warplanes flew 58 sorties on Monday and launched 14 strikes on pro-Qaddafi targets. (Associated Press, CNN)

APRIL 4: The U.S. Treasury Department removed Qaddafi’s former foreign minister and intelligence chief, Musa Kusa, from a blacklist of Qaddafi regime officials who had been banned from traveling to the United States and had their assets frozen. U.S. officials said it was a move to reward Kusa for his decision to defect to the United Kingdom last week and encourage other defections from Qaddafi’s inner circle. Qaddafi has reportedly placed members of his regime and their families under heavy guard on his military compound in Tripoli to ensure no further defections occur. (Associated Press, New York Times, Washington Times)

APRIL 4: Turkey is heading an effort to broker a cease-fire in Libya and was expected to hold discussions with representatives from the Qaddafi regime and the rebels on the issue. Meanwhile, Greek officials stated they would also present a Libyan peace initiative in the coming days. (Washington Times)

APRIL 4: Ali al-Essawi, the foreign policy director of the National Transitional Council, has criticized NATO for bureaucratic delays that were allowing pro-Qaddafi forces to advance against rebels in Brega. (New York Times)

APRIL 4: Abdelilah al-Khatib, the former foreign minister of Jordan and U.N. special envoy to Libya, spoke to the Security Council about his recent visits to Libya, recently met with officials from the National Transitional Council and the Qaddafi regime. He said the NTC had raised concerns about the lack of funds and the ability of the rebel government to market and sell oil and gas under U.N. sanctions. The NTC is set to sell its first tanker of crude this week since the Libyan uprising began. (Reuters)

APRIL 4: Kuwait plans to extend official diplomatic recognition to the National Transitional Council within days. Kuwait will become the fourth nation after Italy to establish official relations the rebel government, and the second Arab state after Qatar. (Reuters)

APRIL 4: Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi traveled to Tunisia to try to persuade the Tunisian authorities to crackdown on the flow of illegal immigrants whose numbers arriving on the southern Italian island of Lampedusa have greatly increased in recent months due to turmoil. (New York Times)

APRIL 4: Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini said Italy would open an office in Benghazi after formally recognizing the National Transitional Council as the government of Libya. (LA Times)

APRIL 4: Britain, France and Italy have scoffed at recent proposals made by Qaddafi and his sons to end the conflict in Libya. Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini, in a meeting with the rebel envoy, dismissed Qaddafi and his sons’ recent diplomatic overtures, said to involve having the elder Qaddafi cede power to one of his sons, suggesting a solution to the conflict must entail the departure of Qaddafi and his family. British and French officials also were not keen at the prospects of Qaddafi’s sons having a continued role in Libya. (Associated Press)

APRIL 4: Italy became the third country to extend diplomatic recognition to the Libyan National Transitional Council, the rebel government based in Benghazi. Frattini did not rule out Italy delivering weapons to the rebels, but said that would be a measure of last-resort. Approximately 50 foreign embassies reportedly remain open in Tripoli, including those of Turkey, Russia, Bulgaria, Ukraine and China as well as sub-Saharan African countries. (Associated Press, New York Times, LA Times, BBC)

APRIL 4: A Jordanian military plane landed in Benghazi carrying medical supplies. Col. Aqab Abu Abu Windi said the plane contained seven and one half tons of medical supplies to help the Libyan people and promised more. Jordan is not participating in coalition military operations in Libya in conjunction with NATO, Qatar, and the UAE. (Associated Press)

APRIL 3: The United States agreed to a NATO request for a 48-hour extension allowing American warplanes to conduct airstrikes against targets in Libya. Air Force AC-130 gunships, A-10 Thunderbolts and Marine Corps AV-8B Harriers have continued strikes against pro-Qaddafi forces fighting the rebels for control of Brega. NATO's on-scene commander, Lt. General Charles Bouchard, can request American strikes, which must be approved by Washington. A senior U.S. military official claimed that heavy cloud cover over Libya late last week curtailed allied airstrikes, which Qaddafi took advantage of during last week’s counteroffensive. The Obama administration has not yet made a decision on whether to arm the rebels with the firepower they need to take and hold ground. (Associated Press)

 APRIL 3: Sief Qaddafi and his brother Saadi Qaddafi have proposed a deal to NATO members to take over Libya from their father and prepare Libya for a transition to a constitutional democracy. And it is not clear whether Qaddafi has signed on, although one person close to the sons indicated Qaddafi appeared willing to leave power. (New York Times)

APRIL 3: Qaddafi launched a diplomatic overture to several NATO members, with acting Libyan Foreign Minister Abdulati al-Obeidi meeting with Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou and planned to travel to Turkey and Malta next. Greek Foreign Minister Dimitris Droutsas said Qaddafi was, “searching for a solution.” (Washington Post)

APRIL 3: A Turkish medical ferry arrived in Benghazi after taking aboard hundreds of wounded rebel fighters and civilians at the besieged city of Misrata. The ship traveled to Misrata under the protection of 10 Turkish F-16s and two naval frigates, and was expected to return to Turkey with the wounded. (Washington Post)

APRIL 2: U.S. combat aircraft are expected to stop flying airstrike missions over Libya on April 3. Additionally, Navy destroyers and submarines that have been launching Tomahawk cruise missiles from the positions in the Mediterranean Sea will also be leaving the area and be put on standby incase requested by NATO. Combat sorties will continue to be flown by the United Kingdom, France and others. The U.S. Navy began operations on March 19 with 12 ships in the Mediterranean. As of April 1, nine remained: the submarines Florida and Scranton; destroyers Stout and Barry; amphibious warships Kearsarge and Ponce; the command ship Mount Whitney; and two supply ships: Robert E. Peary and Kanawha. Marine Harrier attack planes launch from aboard the Kearsarge. Adm. Mike Mullen estimated on Thursday that as few as 1,000 rebels are former members of Qaddafi’s military. (Associated Press)

APRIL 2: NATO warplanes mistakenly bombed bombing rebel columns near Brega. The airstrike killed 13 rebels and wounded seven. Several vehicles and an ambulance were also destroyed, and rebel leaders said their men may have been responsible because they were firing their guns into the air in celebration. (Washington Post, New York Times)

APRIL 2: U.S. and allied officials are expecting more top-level defections from officials in Qaddafi’s inner-circle. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 1: American officials are becoming increasingly reconciled with the possibility of a stalemate between pro-Qaddafi forces and rebels. There are also worries that a stalemate could prolong the financial and military commitments by the United States and allies. (Washington Post)

APRIL 1: British officials told Mohammed Ismail, an aide to Qaddafi’s son Saif al-Islam who is in London for talks with NATO members, that Qaddafi had to leave power as part of any settlement. Ismail reportedly proposed a deal under which Qaddafi’s sons would take power, or at least have a role in a new government, and their father would honorably step aside. (Reuters) APRIL 1: Seven civilians were killed and twenty five injured in a NATO airstrike on a pro-Qaddafi ammunition convoy in the village of Zawia el Argobe, 9 miles from Brega. The resulting explosion destroyed two nearby homes. NATO is investigating the claim. (BBC)

MARCH 31: The Pentagon indicated it would soon withdraw jet fighters and ground-attack planes from the NATO-led campaign in Libya in the coming days. Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates, testifying in front of the House Armed Services Committee, indicated that U.S. forces would “significantly ramp down” their commitment in Libya, while still providing unique capabilities that other nations do not have. According to Gates, during Operation Odyssey Dawn, the United States provided the bulk of air assets, firepower, logistics and command and control. He said the U.S. role will concentrate in electronic attack, aerial refueling, lift, search and rescue, and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support. U.S. strike aircraft including AC-130s and A-10 ground-attack planes would still remain on standby in case NATO requested them. NATO has stated it has 205 alliance jets and 21 naval vessels involved in the Libya operation. (Department of Defense, LA Times)

MARCH 31: Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates and Secretary of State Hilary Clinton indicated that the United States was unlikely to provide arms to the rebels. Gates said the United States should provide communications, surveillance and other support. Clinton was described as cautions due to the possible ties between some rebels and al-Qaeda. Without U.S. arms, the French would be the only coalition member providing the rebels with weapons and training. NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said as far as NATO was concerned the arms embargo on Libya applied to both rebels and pro-Qaddafi forces. (New York Times, Wall Street Journal)

MARCH 31: NATO members warned rebels not to attack civilians as they continued to fight pro-Qaddafi forces. An unnamed senior Obama administration official said, “We’ve been conveying a message to the rebels that we will be compelled to defend civilians, whether pro-Qaddafi or pro-opposition.” U.S. officials have indicated that Qaddafi forces were arming civilians in Sirte, Qaddafi’s hometown, and these civilians were fighting alongside Libyan troops. (New York Times)

MARCH 31: French officials warned that the opening of Libya’s vast arms depots by rebels and pro-Qaddafi troops was raising concerns that shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles could find their way into the hands of terrorists, as dozens of the weapons have disappeared. (Department of Defense)

MARCH 31: Ali Abdussalam el-Treki, a former Foreign Minister and UN ambassador, who had worked in Qaddafi’s inner-circle for decades, had defected to Egypt. This was the second high-level defection from Qaddafi’s inner-circle, as Libyan Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa defected to the United Kingdom. (New York Times, al-Jazeera, Washington Post)

MARCH 31: NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen announced NATO had assumed full command of Coalition operations in Libya from U.S. Africa Command. The NATO campaign, dubbed Operation Unified Protector, is under the command of Canadian Lt. Gen. Charles Bouchard. (Department of Defense)

MARCH 31: Clandestine CIA operatives have been on the ground in Libya for several weeks gathering intelligence for military airstrikes and to liaison and vet the rebels. The number of CIA operatives is unknown; many of them came from the CIA’s Tripoli station while others have more recently arrived from a CIA staging ground in the UAE. U.S. officials said the CIA and British operatives were not directing the rebel forces, which recently suffered a major reversal at Sirte. President Obama signed a secret finding several weeks ago giving the CIA the authority to provide arms and other support to the rebels, however, no arms have been shipped yet due to internal debates in the administration. There are also dozens of British SAS, SBS and MI6 intelligence officers are working alongside the Libyan rebels and locating Qaddafi’s surface-to-air missile batteries. (New York Times, Military Times, Washington Post)

MARCH 31: U.S. officials hailed the defection of Libyan Foreign Minister Musa Kusa as an example of the growing splits inside Qaddafi’s inner circle. Kusa and other senior Libyan officials have recently reached out to at least 12 countries to discuss either defections or ways to end the Libyan conflict. There is hope inside the Obama administration that a larger rebellion could take place. Kusa flew from Tunisia aboard a private jet to a noncommercial British airfield in Farnborough, southwest of London. He has not been promised or granted immunity by the British. Kusa was the head of Qaddafi’s intelligence service from 1995 to 2009, and is believed to be one of the masterminds behind many of Libya’s acts of state-sponsored terrorism, including the Lockerbie bombing in 1988 that killed 270 people including 189 Americans. (Wall Street Journal, New York Times, BBC)

MARCH 30: The U.S. military has been employing U-2 spy planes, Global Hawk drone, and an E-8 Joint JSTARS, to track Libyan troop movements. The Air Force also has Predator drones in reserve. (New York Times)

MARCH 30: According to U.S. and NATO officials, pro-Qaddafi forces have adopted new tactics after suffering numerous airstrikes on their tanks and armored vehicles. Qaddafi’s troops have left their heavy armor behind and have begun using technical and civilian minivans, sedans and SUVs, making them difficult to distinguish from rebel forces and civilians. (Associated Press)

MARCH 30: U.S. officials have said that Libyan rebels are not subject to U.S. sanctions on the Qaddafi regime provided the rebels avoid business regime entities, potentially allowing them to sell oil from rebel-held areas. There are, however, legal questions surrounding any potential rebel oil sales. Rebels do not have legal title to oilfields, lift stations and pipelines and terminals and oil companies and insurance companies would be unlikely to risk sending tankers and personnel to the area. (Reuters)

MARCH 30: White House Press Secretary Jay Carney has state the administration had not reached a decision to provide arms to the rebels. The White House said it is assessing options for “all types of assistance.” British Foreign Secretary William Hague said his government has made no decision about arming the rebels and that “we want to know about any links with al-Qaeda.” French Defence Minister Gerard Longuet stated arms assistance was not compatible with UNSCR 1973. (Military Times, Washington Post, BBC)

MARCH 30: Of the estimated $550 million dollars spent by the United States in the Libya campaign so far, the U.S. Air Force has spent approximately $50 million, or $4 million per day, depending on the expenditure of munitions. U.S. expenditures are expected to level out at about $40 million a month according to Pentagon officials. Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Norton Schwartz told the Senate Appropriations Committee that the Air Force’s new F-22 fighter, which was expected to be used early on in the Libya campaign, would be used "in the early days" of a Libyan operation, had not been used because there are no F-22s based in Europe or the Middle East and the warplanes were poorly suited for air to ground operations. (The Hill)

MARCH 30: A NATO airstrike against a Libyan ammunition depot in Mizdah, approximately 100 miles south of Tripoli, caused rockets to go off and hit the town's hospital, an apartment complex and a house. Several civilians were injured but there were no deaths reported. (LA Times)

MARCH 30: British Prime Minister David Cameron informed British lawmakers that “helping” the Libyan rebels arm themselves for defense would not be counter to UNSCR 1973’s arms embargo on Libya. Belgium and Denmark have stated they are against arming the rebels. (Reuters)

MARCH 30: There were no allied airstrikes on pro-Qaddafi forces in Sirte as rebel forces advanced on the city and were routed by superior firepower from Qaddafi’s troops entrenched with rockets, artillery and tanks outside of Sirte at the town of Bin Jawwad. The rebels reportedly retreated en masse to Uqaylah, reportedly retreating from the strategic cities of Ras Lanuf and Brega. (LA Times, BBC)

MARCH 30: Ugandan officials have said Present Yoweri Museveni would welcome Qaddafi to live in exile in Uganda. Uganda is the first country to offer Qaddafi exile. (Associated Press)

MARCH 29: U.S. intelligence agencies have said that there are some Islamists fighters with potential ties to al-Qaeda among the anti-Qaddafi rebels, but the number was relatively small and they played a limited role. A former Libyan Islamic Fighting Group leader Noman Benotman estimated that around a thousand “freelance jihadists” are fighting among the anti-Qaddafi rebels. He also said al-Qaeda in the Islamic Mahgreb, an al-Qaeda offshoot in North Africa, has tried but failed to co-opt the leadership of the rebel movement. (Washington Times, Wall Street Journal)

MARCH 29: There is an intense debate inside the Obama administration about whether to supply weapons to the rebels. Some officials believe that providing arms would deepen U.S. involvement and that some rebels have links to al-Qaeda and al-Qaeda affiliates. France had been strongly pushing the Obama administration to begin arming the rebels, while rebel leader Mahmoud Shammam, said they would welcome arms along with political support. (New York Times)

MARCH 29: At the London Conference on Libya, allies created a contact group to lead enforcement of U.N. sanctions and organized political efforts against Qaddafi and a second trip to Libya was expected to be made by the U.N. Special Envoy Abdelilah Khatib, the former Foreign Minister of Jordan. Khatib was expected to negotiate terms for Qaddafi’s exit from the Libya; although there appears to be contention that if Qaddafi did abdicate whether any deal would include immunity from possible war crimes trials. (LA Times)

MARCH 29: A Navy P-3C Orion launched several AGM-65F air-to-surface missiles at the Libyan Coast Guard vessel Vittoria, a 12-meter patrol craft, which was attacking merchant vessels in the port city of Misrata—where a rebel forces remains besieged by pro-Qaddafi forces and has reportedly being resupplied by rebel ships from Benghazi—forcing it to beach. The Orion was joined by an Air Force A-10 and the U.S. guided-missile destroyer Barry, the A-10 strafed two smaller Libyan ships, destroying one and forcing the crew to abandon the other. (Military Times)

MARCH 29: The U.S. guided-missile destroyer Barry launched 22 Tomahawk cruise missiles at weapon storage sites near Tripoli. The pace of U.S. airstrikes has increased recently, there were reportedly 119 strikes on Monday, 107 on Sunday and 88 on Saturday. (New York Times)

MARCH 29: U.S. Admiral James Stavridis, the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe,  said intelligence agencies had found "flickers" of an al-Qaeda or Hezbollah presence in the rebels but that there was no detailed portrait of the emerging Libyan opposition. (Daily Telegraph)

MARCH 29: The Pentagon has stated that the military campaign in Libya has cost about $550 million so far, which is largely for bombs and missiles. This is the first official price tag for operations in Libya released so far. (Boston Globe, Reuters)

MARCH 29: At a conference in London to discuss the future of Libya, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton met with the Libyan Interim National Council's Mahmoud Jabril, a former head of Libya's economic planning council. It was their second meeting in two weeks. The Obama administration is also planning to send a diplomatic liaison to the rebel capital of Benghazi to open up communications with the rebel government. Chris Stevens, who was formerly the Charge d'Affaires at the U.S. Embassy in Tripoli, has been appointed to communicate with the Libyan opposition. The United States is reportedly trying to make the $30 billion dollars in Qaddafi’s funds frozen by the U.S. Treasury available to the rebels. (CNN)

MARCH 29: Swedish Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt was to ask parliament today to send eight Gripen fighter jets to join Coalition operations in Libya, but he insisted they not be used in ground strikes. This would be the first mission abroad for the Swedish Air force since the early 1960s. (Daily Telegraph, Stockholm News)

MARCH 28: President Obama delivered a primetime address arguing that the U.S. military campaign in Libya was necessary to avoid a massacre at Benghazi, that the mission was in America's interests but the military role would be limited to protecting civilians, not regime change. (White House, Washington Post)

MARCH 28: The U.S. military employed two AC-130 flying gunships, six A-10 tank-killer attack aircraft and two B-1B bombers against Libyan ground forces over the weekend, targeting enemy ground troops and supply convoys. The AC-130s are flying out of an air base in Italy. They were requested by Gen. Carter Ham, who said they are likely to continue being used over Libya to ratchet up the pressure on Qaddafi’s forces. (Washington Post, New York Times)

MARCH 28: Coalition aircraft have begun psychological operations against pro-Qaddafi forces, sending messages in Arabic and English telling Libyan soldiers to leave their posts and go home. U.S. intelligence-gathering aircraft, such as the EC-130J Commando Solo have also taken the lead in the Coalition in intercepting Libyan radio transmissions and using the information to relay attacks on Libyan ground forces. Global Hawk drones have also been tracking Libyan ground force movements, providing intelligence to E-3 Sentry AWACS that relay targets to warplanes for attack. (New York Times)

MARCH 28: U.S. warplanes also attacked three Libyan vessels off the contested western port of Misrata. Besieged rebel forces in Misrata were reportedly resupplied by a boat delivering weapons and ammunition from Benghazi, and received three resupply boats on Sunday, said Aiman Abu-Bakr, a rebel leader. One Libyan patrol boat, the Vittoria, was forced to beach. Two smaller vessels were hit and one sank. It was the first known incident of attacks at sea since Coalition forces began operations in Libya. (Wall Street Journal, New York Times)

MARCH 28: The United States launched six Tomahawk cruise missiles against the headquarters of Qaddafi’s elite 32nd Brigade, one of the regime’s most loyal units and is highly active in terms of attacking civilians. Also struck were several targets around Tripoli and Sabha, mostly ammunition stores, bunkers, and an SA-6 site in Tripoli. In the last 24 hours, the coalition has flown 178 sorties, most of which were airstrikes. Airstrikes have also been conducted around command-and-control sites in Sirte. So far in the campaign, U.S. forces have fired 199 Tomahawks, Coalition forces have fired seven, and approximately 600 precision-guided munitions have been used, 455 by the U.S., and 147 by the Coalition in approximately 983 sorties. (Department of Defense

MARCH 28: According to General Carter F. Ham, the commander of U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM), “The regime still vastly overmatches opposition forces militarily.” He also said that “the regime possesses the capability to roll them back very quickly. Coalition air power is the major reason that has not happened.” (New York Times)

MARCH 28: Qatar granted diplomatic recognition to the Transitional National Council—the rebel government in Benghazi—as the official government of Libya. Qatar became the first Arab state and the second country after France to officially recognize the rebel government. Qatar has reportedly sent shipments of medical supplies to rebels besieged in Misrata, and to Benghazi, and has also sent warplanes to Coalition operations over Libya. Qatari Mirage fighters have flown in formation with French fighters out of airbase in Crete in four-plane patrols over rebel-controlled eastern Libya. The Qatar has brought along several Pakistani technical advisors that assist the Qartari air force. (BBC, Wall Street Journal, Associated Press)

MARCH 28: Rebel forces are reportedly closing in on Nawfaliyah, a town west of Bin Jawad, and extending their advance towards Qaddafi’s hometown of Sirte, approximately 120km (75 miles) west. However, rebel forces appear to have run into Qaddafi’s first line of defenses, with regime forces dug into positions along a heavily mined road and are shelling the rebel forces advancing. Qaddafi forces appear to have withdrawn their heavy armor from Sirte further north to the Greater Tripoli area. (BBC, al-Jazeera)  

MARCH 28: U.S. warships launched six Tomahawk missiles from positions in the Mediterranean Sea, bringing the total number of long-range cruise missiles fired by the coalition to 199. (CBS News)

MARCH 28: There are indications that Coalition operations in Libya will be conducted under new and stricter rules of engagement under NATO command. Potentially, these new rules would not allow NATO warplanes to target pro-Qaddafi forces unless they posed an immediate threat to civilians. Individual Coalition participants and pilots have had a wide-range of discretion on which targets to strike. There is speculation that until these new rules come into effect, French and British will increase airstrikes to inflict as much damage as possible on Qaddafi’s forces. Additionally, NATO’s Secretary-General ruled out the alliance would arm rebels, insisting the UN-sanctioned arms embargo applied to the entire country. (Guardian, CNN)

MARCH 28: The British military announced that British Tornado GR4 aircraft had struck pro-Qaddafi ammunition bunkers in the Sabha region, which far south of Tripoli. The bunkers were reportedly being used to supply Qaddafi’s forces further north, and initial reports indicated that they were destroyed by the airstrike. (BBC)

MARCH 27: Pentagon officials said that pro-Qaddafi forces remain a potent threat to civilians and the U.S. military is looking at plans to increase U.S. firepower and intelligence gathering over Libya. This would possibly include the introduction of the Air Force's AC-130 gunship, attack helicopters and unmanned drones. These assets would allow more precision strikes on pro-Qaddafi forces in heavy urban areas like Misrata, which Allied airstrikes have largely avoided because of the potential for civilian casualties.  Allied airstrikes outside Misrata continued throughout the night, reportedly destroying a major ammunition depot used by pro-Qaddafi forces. (LA Times, Associated Press)

MARCH 27: The U.S. military stated that in the previous 24 hours, U.S. aircraft had conducted 88 combat strikes against Libyan targets, down from 96 strikes the previous day. AV-8B Harrier jets from 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit conducted airstrikes on pro-Qaddafi tanks and armored personnel carriers near the city of Misrata, (Military Times, ENC)

MARCH 27: NATO members agreed that the military alliance would take full command of Coalition operations in Libya, ending over a week of intense negotiations over the alliance’s involvement. Canadian Lieutenant General Charles Bouchard, commander of the NATO operations, said NATO had already taken over the no-fly operation. The first NATO sorties flew over Libya on Sunday. However, full transition of Coalition operations to NATO command is expected to be complete by the end of the week.  (Reuters, CNN, NATO)

MARCH 27: A Pentagon official stated the United States was beginning to reduce the number of U.S. warships involved in operations off the coast of Libya. According to the official, at least one of the Navy submarines, which have been used to fire Tomahawk missiles into Libya, had left the area and that a further withdrawal of U.S. naval forces was likely. (New York Times, Military Times)

MARCH 27: Secretary of Defense Robert Gates stated Coalition operations had prevented Qaddafi’s forces from entering Benghazi and taken out a significant portion of Qaddafi’s armored forces. He said, “I think we have, to a very large extent, completed the military mission, in terms of getting it set up.” Gates said the Obama administration and Coalition had not made a decision on supplying arms to rebel forces, although he said UNSCR 1973 permitted such action. Gates said NATO taking control of the operations would allow the U.S. military to begin reducing its presence. Further, Gates acknowledged that the war in Libya was “not a vital national interest to the United States.” Both Gates and Secretary of State Hilary Clinton left open the length of U.S. involvement in Libya. (Department of Defense, New York Times, LA Times)

MARCH 27: The French military announced its warplanes had struck pro-Qaddafi armored vehicles and a large munitions depot in Misrata and Zintan. (CNN)

MARCH 26: Coalition airstrikes began targeting Qaddafi’s hometown and coastal stronghold of Sirte for the first time. Additionally, there were at least nine suspected airstrikes in Tripoli. Qaddafi had reinforced his forces in Misrata with about 1,000 gunmen as Coalition airstrikes on pro-Qaddafi forces on the outskirts of the city have driven them deeper into the city to blend in amongst civilians as they engage in street-to-street fighting with rebels. (Washington Post)

MARCH 26: President Obama used his weekly radio address to Coalition involvement in Libya and address. Obama said he ordered U.S. warplanes over Libya to avert a humanitarian catastrophe and a "blood bath" at Benghazi. The President stated that the United States is not being drawn into a wider war in Libya. (LA Times, White House)

MARCH 26: Pro-Qaddafi forces pulled back from Ajdabiya in the face of a rebel offensive and Coalition airstrikes. Rebels took Ajdabiya and continued westwards for 50 miles, taking the city of Brega and Ras Lanuf with little resistance. Ajdabiya is important because it controls the water supply to Bengazhi, which Qaddafi forces had disrupted. Brega and Ras Lanuf have important oil refineries and a port. Rebels continued advancing the front line west from Ras Lanuf toward Bin Jawwad, near Sirte. (Ministry of Defense)

MARCH 26: General Carter F. Ham confirmed that Coalition airstrikes were striking troops from the Libyan 32nd Brigade, a crack unit based out of Tripoli and commanded by one of Qaddafi’s sons, Khamis Qaddafi. (New York Times)

MARCH 25: According to British military officials, Qaddafi controls 600 miles of coastline including numerous ports that will need to be monitored by Coalition warships. Coalition warships using helicopters and aircraft will be employed to gather intelligence and assist commanders in boarding operations if necessary. Coalition warships will patrol the Libyan coast for weeks at a time and will be supported by tankers and other auxiliary ships. (Ministry of Defense)

MARCH 25: A naval academy and depot approximately 20 miles from Tripoli were reportedly hit by an airstrike and destroyed. U.S. military officials stated the Coalition no-fly zone extended from the Libyan coastline, to Sabha, approximately 480 miles south of Tripoli. However, Coalition airstrikes had failed to break pro-Qaddafi forces’ siege of Misrata, where a small rebel force is held up. (WSJ)

MARCH 25: The U.S. military stated Coalition forces had fired 16 Tomahawk cruise missiles and flown 153 sorties in the past 24 hours against pro-Qaddafi forces, targeting artillery, mechanized forces and command and control infrastructure. (Reuters)

MARCH 25: The United Arab Emirates announced it was joining the U.S.-led Coalition and dispatching six F-16s and six Mirage fighters to enforce the no-fly zone over Libya. A former UAE air force commander stated that the UAE had delayed its deployment because of disagreements with the United States and Europe over the unrest in Bahrain. The UAE is the second Arab state to offer aircraft for the Libyan operations, with Qatar the first. (AFP)

MARCH 25: A NATO official said planning for NATO's no-fly operation was assuming the mission would last 90 days, although this could be adjusted as necessary. Admiral Edouard Guillaud, the head of French armed forces, said "I doubt that it will be days…I think it will be weeks. I hope it will not take months." (Reuters)

MARCH 25: British Tornado GR4 warplanes conducted on armed reconnaissance sortie over eastern Libya launched “coordinated” airstrikes overnight around Ajdabiya. The British aircraft fired a number of Brimstone missiles at pro-Qaddafi armored vehicles that were threatening civilians in Ajdabiya airstrikes. (BBC)

MARCH 25: French warplanes destroyed a pro-Qaddafi artillery battery near the frontline city of Ajdabiya, 150 km (90 miles) south of Benghazi. Ajdabiya is strategically located along the coastal highway running east-west, making it vital for both sides to control. (Reuters)

MARCH 25: Diplomats at the United Nations said Sudan had granted Coalition forces permission to use Sudanese airspace to enforce the no-fly zone. Additionally, Uganda said it would freeze Libyan assets worth about $375 million in accordance with U.N. sanctions. (Reuters)

MARCH 25: U.S. and European officials hammered out a deal to transfer Coalition command of the Libyan no-fly zone to NATO in several days. However, officials confirmed U.S. aircraft would still be flying combat missions against pro-Qaddafi ground forces. The transfer to NATO command was arranged by Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and her French, British and Turkish counterparts. (Washington Post, LA Times)

MARCH 24: There are now twenty-six Coalition warships are participating in operations off the coast of Libya, including twelve U.S. warships and two European aircraft carriers, France’s Charles De Gaulle and Italy’s Garibaldi. Combat aircraft from both carriers are participating in operations. (Department of Defense)

MARCH 24: Pro-Qaddafi forces are reportedly running low on fuel, ammunition and food because the allied aircraft have cut supply lines to Qaddafi’s stronghold of Sirt, where Qaddafi is from. U.S. military officials said in addition to Coalition airstrikes against pro-Qaddafi forces outside of Ajdabiya, Coalition strikes were conducted against a regime command and control facility and a surface-to-air missile site near Tripoli, along with an ammunition dump near Misrata. (LA Times)

MARCH 24: According to Navy vice Adm. Bill Gortney, Coalition warplanes conducted 130 sorties in the past 24 hours. 49 airstrikes were against targets around Tripoli and Ajdabiya. Approximately half of the sorties were flown by U.S. aircraft. (LA Times)

MARCH 24: A French Rafale fighter shot down a Libyan warplane flying over Misrata that was flying in defiance of the no-fly zone. The Libyan aircraft was a Soko G-2 Galeb, a twin-seat ground attack and reconnaissance aircraft produced by Yugoslavia. It is reportedly the first Libyan warplane to fly since the beginning of Coalition military operations. (ABC News, BBC)

MARCH 24: Col. Qaddafi’s Bab Al-Aziziya compound in Tripoli was attacked by Coalition aircraft for a second time. The Bab Al-Aziziya compound was also struck on MARCH 20 by two British Tomahawk missiles. According to U.S. officials, the strike was not pre-selected but a target of opportunity taken by the pilots. (ABC News)

MARCH 24: A Coalition airstrike was reported at a microwave tower on a Libyan military base in Tajura, a suburb east of Tripoli, which allegedly killed 18 Libyan military personnel. Fuel tanks located south of Tripoli were also struck, according to Libyan military officials.  (CNN)

MARCH 24: According to Vice Marshall Greg Bagwell of Britain's Royal Air Force, airstrikes had successfully degraded Libyan air defenses enough to allow Coalition aircraft to operate with “near impunity” across Libya. (CNN)

MARCH 24: French aircraft struck a Libyan airbase approximately 155 miles south of the Libyan coastline, likely the al-Juffra airbase—one of the two airbases in the remote Libyan interior. Al-Juffra is located along the main highway that leads to Chad, Sudan and Niger from which mercenary fighters and arms have been flowing north to support pro-Qaddafi forces. (ABC News, BBC)

MARCH 24: U.S. naval forces along with the Britain’s HMS Triumph, a Royal Navy Trafalgar Class submarine, fired approximately a dozen Tomahawk missiles at Libyan air defense targets in Tripoli and south of the capital. Other missiles struck an ammunition bunker around Misrata and against pro-Qaddafi forces south of Benghazi. (Ministry of Defense, ABC News)

MARCH 24: Turkey, which had initially opposed handing off the no-fly zone operation to NATO, shifted its opinion, apparently after pressure from President Obama to participate, and has insisted the no-fly zone be limited to a NATO-only operation. Turkey announced it was sending 6 warships including 4 frigates, 1 submarine and 1 support vessel to the Libyan coast to enforce the arms embargo. (WSJ, Reuters, AGI, White House)

MARCH 24: Coalition warplanes struck targets in the town of Sebha in southern Libya, located approximately 480 miles south of Tripoli. Sebha is a known stronghold of Col. Qaddafi and the location of a major Libyan military base. (BBC)

MARCH 23: On the fifth day of operations over Libya, the 13-nation alliance had reportedly flown more than 336 sorties. The United States had flown 212 of the sorties, while coalition sorties totaled 124. Of the 336 sorties, 108 were dubbed “strike sorties,” meaning they encountered pro- Qaddafi forces in some way. Additionally, the number of Tomahawk missile launches totaled 162. (Department of Defense)

MARCH 23: Romanian President Traian Basescu won support to participate in coalition naval operations off the coast of Libya. A Romanian frigate carrying 205 Romanian sailors and two naval officers would join Coalition naval forces in the Mediterranean to enforce the arms embargo. (Reuters)

MARCH 23: Coalition airstrikes reportedly halted Qaddafi's assault on the rebel-held western city of Misrata and Ajdabiya. The strikes targeted pro-Qaddafi tanks, artillery and rocket launchers in and around the cities, as well as mobile surface-to-air missile sites and lines of communication and supply. Some pro-Qaddafi tanks and fighters fled the cities, but reportedly returned to their positions during the night and continued attacking. Prior to the Misrata strikes, U.S. Rear Admiral Peg Klein said airstrikes, which had been suppressing Libya's air defenses, would begin hitting Qaddafi's ground forces. (Reuters, Washington Post)

MARCH 23: The French foreign minister, Alain Juppé, stated that representatives from the United States, Europe, Africa and the Arab nations would meet next week in London to discuss command of military operations in Libya. (New York Times)

MARCH 23: Germany announced it was withdrawing four of its naval ships in the Mediterranean under NATO command. In order to compensate this withdrawal, Germany announced it would deploy 300 more troops to Afghanistan to support surveillance aircraft. (New York Times)

MARCH 23: A Danish F-16 for the first time dropped precision bombs on targets in Libya, the first Danish airstrike of the campaign. (Ennahar)

MARCH 23: Navy Adm. Gary Roughead stated the EA-18G Growler, the Navy’s newest electronic warfare aircraft, had performed well in operations over Libya. The five-jet Growler squadron had been flying missions over Iraq just 47 hours before being redeployed to Libya. (American Forces Press Service)

MARCH 23: General David Petraeus, the commander of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan, said he was not concerned that operations in Libya would divert military resources from Afghanistan. (Reuters)

MARCH 22: U.S. planes bombed the wreckage of the F-15 fighter that went down in Libya due to mechanical failure. A U.S. official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said that the wreckage was bombed, "to prevent materials from getting into the wrong hands." (Reuters)

MARCH 22: Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates stated that operations in Libya would soon decline significantly. Secretary Gates, visiting Moscow, rejected assertions by Russian officials and others that air strikes in Libya were causing a significant number of civilian casualties. (New York Times)

MARCH 22: Four British Tornado GR4's relocated from RAF Marham in Norfolk, England, joining ten Typhoons and four Tornado GR4's at Gioia del Colle airbase in southern Italy to conduct operations over Libya. The redeployment brings the total RAF aircraft stationed in Italy to eighteen. (British Forces News)

MARCH 22: Two Italian F-16s flying out of Trapani-Birgi participated in operations over Libya. (Avionews)

MARCH 21: Four British Tornados flew south from RAF Marham in Norfolk, England for an armed reconnaissance flight over Libya to protect civilians from attacks by pro-Qaddafi forces, no missiles were reported fired. (British Forces News, Ministry of Defense)

MARCH 21: Six Danish F-16s were reported to have flown ‘high risk' missions over Libya. Four Danish aircraft were waiting for U.S. instructions to join operations over Libya while two would be kept in reserve. Danish aircraft are reportedly flying out of the U.S. air base in Sigonella, Sicily. According to Danish officials, their aircraft had not fired any missiles, and had not been fired upon. (Reuters, Copenhagen Post)

MARCH 21: Canada deployed six CF-18 Hornets over northern Libya, but they did not carry out any strikes. Canadian aircraft were reportedly flying out of Decimomannu airbase in Sardinia, Italy. (Reuters)

MARCH 21: Norway deployed six fighter aircraft to Crete to join the operations over Libya. The Norwegian Defense Minister, however, stated they would not engage in action until an effective, transparent command structure was in place. (Reuters)

MARCH 21: Two U.S. Air Force crew members ejected from their F-15E Strike Eagle after the aircraft encountered an equipment malfunction over Benghazi. The F-15E was assigned to conduct a strike mission against Qaddafi regime missile capabilities. At the request of one of the downed crewmembers, two Marine Harriers dropped two 500-pound bombs on a force moving towards him before a Marine Osprey helicopter landed to pick him up. The rescue operation stirred controversy after reports that Libyan civilians were wounded by the bombs or shot by the rescue team. The other crew member was recovered and provided care by Libyan civilians (or rebels) and was also rescued. (Washington Post, New York Times)

MARCH 21: General Carter Ham, the commander of U.S. Africa Command, stated that no Libyan military aircraft had been observed flying since operations began; Libyan naval vessels had returned to or have remained in port and after the initial strikes there have been no detections of emissions from regime long-range, air-defense radars. Coalition forces were working on extending the no-fly zone southward, then westward from Benghazi to Brega, Misrata, and then to Tripoli. (Department of Defense)

MARCH 21: General Carter Ham noted that distinguishing between pro-Qaddafi and rebel forces were very difficult, especially when they are in close contact. He reported that coalition forces were aware that some rebels had armored vehicles and heavy weapons. (Department of Defense)

MARCH 20: Qatar was poised to move four French-made Mirage 2000/9 combat aircraft to Souda airbase on Crete to participate in operations over Libya. France dispatched its Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier toward Crete to participate in the operation. The carrier is loaded with 15 fighter planes and joined by a French submarine and half a dozen support ships. (Reuters)

MARCH 20: U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates said that the U.S. expected to turn control of the Libya military mission over to a coalition — probably headed either by the French and British or by NATO — "in a matter of days." (Associated Press)

MARCH 20: Admiral Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, stated that coalition strikes had already has taken out most of Qaddafi’s air defenses and airfields, and that the no-fly zone in Libya has been effectively established. (Department of Defense)

MARCH 20: Italian forces joined operation over Libya for the first time with six Tornado flying out of Trapani airbase in Sicily. Earlier Italian officials said 8 aircraft had been assigned to the mission. Additionally, 15 French combat planes conducted patrols over Libya without encountering resistance.  (Reuters)

MARCH 20: 15 U.S. Air Force F-15Es and F-16s and Marine Corps Harriers flying from bases in Europe, supported by U.S. Navy EA-18G Growlers and joined by aircraft from France and the U.K., attacked pro-Qaddafi mechanized infantry forces located approximately 10 miles south of Benghazi. The strikes halted the regime’s advance on Benghazi. In all, Coalition forces flew approximately 60 sorties, half of which were done by U.S. forces. The strikes were not conducted in coordination with rebels. (Department of Defense)

MARCH 20: Three B-2 Spirit bombers operating from Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri dropped a total of 45 one-ton JDAMs on Libyan aircraft fields and shelters around Ghardabiya, not far from Misrata, the targets were successfully destroyed. (Department of Defense)

MARCH 20: 12 Tomahawk cruise missiles were fired from U.S. and British ships in the Mediterranean against Libyan command-and-control facilities, a Scud surface-to-surface missile facility and a re-attack of an air-defense site which had previously been attacked. Targeted Libyan radar sites are reported to have been successfully disabled or destroyed, the only remaining operational radar sites are reportedly around Tripoli and Surt. (Department of Defense)

MARCH 20: The RAF, operating under Operation Ellamy, launched Tornado GR4 fast jets from RAF Marham in Norfolk, England, which flew to Libya where they launched Storm Shadow missiles at Libyan air-defense targets. They then flew back to RAF Marham, completing a 3,000-mile round trip—the longest range bombing mission conducted by the RAF since the Falklands conflict. In addition to a Trafalgar-class submarine and Typhoon air support, the U.K. announced that two Royal Navy frigates were off the coast of Libya supporting coalition operations. (Ministry of Defense)

MARCH 19: British Prime Minister David Cameron announced British forces were in action over Libya as part of the international coalition enforcing the United Nations Security Council resolution in order to support the Libyan people. Cameron stated the “time for action has come” after it became clear that Muammar Qaddafi had violated his own ceasefire. (Office of the Prime Minister)

MARCH 19: France announced it was sending its Charles De Gaulle aircraft carrier to the Libyan coast to participate in the operation; Canada stated its fighter jets had reached the region but would need two days of preparation before participating. (BBC)

MARCH 19: President Barack Obama announces he ordered the U.S. military to begin, “a limited military action in Libya in support of an international effort to protect Libyan civilians.” The President reiterated a promise not to deploy any U.S. troops on the ground into Libya. (White House)

MARCH 19: Participants at the Paris Summit release a communiqué demanding a ceasefire and reiterating their determination to enforce UNSCR 1973. They also praise the Libyan National Transition Council (NTC). Summit participants include leaders from the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Poland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Greece, Canada, Norway, Qatar, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Morocco; and representatives from the United Nations, European Union, and the Arab League. (Communiqué)

MARCH 19: In the opening salvo of Operation Odyssey Dawn, two U.S. destroyers and four submarines—along with one British submarine—located in the Mediterranean Sea fired approximately 112 Tomahawk cruise missiles. The missiles struck more than 20 different targets of the Libyan air defense system including surface-to-air missiles, early warning sites and communication facilities. The majority of the targets were located in western Libya, in and around Tripoli, Misrata, and Surt. These missile strikes were designed to create the conditions necessary to set up the no-fly zone and begin manned-flights over Libya. (Department of Defense, New York Times

MARCH 19: French military forces begin Operation Harmattan. Approximately twenty French aircraft enforced a no-fly zone over eastern Libya to protect the rebel stronghold of Benghazi. The French plane fired the first shot in Libya at 1645 GMT. French aircraft attack Qaddafi ground forces on the highway between Benghazi and Ajdabiya, destroying a number of tanks and armored vehicles. (Ministre de la Défense)

MARCH 18: The United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Arab States released a joint statement after a high-level summit meeting in Paris demanding that Qaddafi  immediately implement a cease fire and stop attacks against civilians ended in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1973. Further, the coalition called on Qaddafi to stop his troops from advancing on Benghazi, pull back his troops from Ajdabiya, Misrata, and Zawiyah, and re-establish water, electricity and gas supplies to all areas. They warned that if Qaddafi did not comply, then UNSCR 1973 would be enforced through military action. (Office of the Prime Minister)

MARCH 17: The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1973, which authorized member states to act through national or regional organizations to take all necessary measures to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack from pro-Qaddafi forces, excluding any form of a foreign occupation force. In addition to a no-fly zone, it authorized an asset freeze and an arms embargo—including the prevention of armed mercenary personnel flowing into Libya. Voting for the resolution were permanent Security Council members the United States, the United Kingdom, and France; they were joined by Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, Gabon, Lebanon, Nigeria, Portugal, and South Africa. Abstaining from the vote were permanent Security Council members Russia and China; they were joined by Germany, Brazil and India. No member states were opposed. (UNSCR Resolution 1973, New York Times)