Libyan port city of Benghazi, now controlled by opposition forces (photo by Dennixo, available at Wikimedia Commons).

March 24, 2011

Libya Conflict: Opposition Movements and Statements

Libyan port city of Benghazi, now controlled by opposition forces (photo by Dennixo, available at wikimedia commons).

Last Updated: May 27, 2011 at 1300 EST.


Daily updates for Libya have currently been discontinued. The Libya operations tracker continues to be updated on a daily basis at the Institute for the Study of War. You can access the full tracker HERE.



MAY 27: Speaking at a news conference at the end of the Group of Eight's (G8) annual summit, French President Nicolas Sarkozy said that he still plans to visit the rebel headquarters in Benghazi, preferably along with British Prime Minister David Cameron. Sarkozy said that “It should be a Franco-British initiative, it would be awkward to do it separately. It's still on the table but for various reasons we haven't fixed the date yet.” (Reuters Africa)

MAY 27: On Friday, Libya's former central bank governor, Farhat Omar Bin Guidara, declared that he had defected from the Qaddafi regime and would be joining the rebels. Bin Guidara said that "I left Libya on Feb. 21, and since the beginning of March, I split from the regime. But due to the nature of my work, I made no press statements. I have announced my resignation and now I am supporting the ... interim (rebel) council in providing suitable living conditions in areas that are facing unrest." (Reuters)

MAY 27: Heavy fighting on the outskirts of Misrata has resulted in the deaths of three rebels and sixteen injuries. A rebel fighter, Faraj al Mistiri, said that, "We are being attacked from all sides with rockets, RPGs (rocket-propelled grenades) and mortars. They are trying their hardest to get back into Misrata." (Reuters

MAY 27: Zintan received intense rocket fire from pro-Qaddafi forces positioned to the east of the town. A foreign doctor said that "There must have been about a hundred (strikes). I wasn't counting, but there were four or five rockets every half an hour or 15 minutes," but said that no casualties had yet been reported. The doctor also said that civilians within Zintan were leaving the city to escape the attacks. Amnesty International has also reported that there have been cases of "enforced disappearances," in the area, specifically of young men believed to have been kidnapped by Qaddafi forces. (Reuters, AFP)

MAY 26: The deputy leader of the rebel-led Transitional National Council, Abdel Hafiz Ghoga, told a news conference that a one to two-year transition period would be needed following the potential removal of Colonel Qaddafi. During that time period, opposition leaders would “form a transitional legislative body tasked with writing a constitution, hold a referendum on the charter, form political parties and then hold elections.” However, Yousif Sherif, a council member in charge of town councils and culture said that elections should not take more than six months to organize. Sherif also said that no council member would be allowed to stand for election. (Associated Press)

MAY 25: In response to President Obama’s remarks that Qaddafi should leave power against the threat of an unrelenting military campaign, rebel spokesperson Jalal Gallal stated that Obama’s statement was “very positive news. We are on the same wavelength." He declared, “We all are agreed in a vision of a democratic Libya without Gadhafi, his family or any member of his inner circle. We also concur that there will be no foreign troops on the ground. We need the international community, the air cover, until the objective is met, and that we have. It is just going to take a little longer than necessary.” (CBS News)

MAY 25: Over the course of the seven-week siege by pro-Qaddafi troops on the rebel-held city of Misrata, over 1,000 men and women have gone missing. Abdel Hadi, a former prosecutor now in charge of the missing persons file, stated that many of the men and women have been “forcibly taken away” by Qaddafi troops, while others may have left to escape the violence. (Associated Press)

MAY 25: U.S. oil refiner Tesoro has purchased a shipment of one million barrels of crude oil from the rebels, according to company officials. The oil shipment had originally been bought in early April by Tesoro to run its Hawaii refinery and will arrive in Honolulu around June 7. Meanwhile, oil traders report that a fuel tanker is due to arrive in Benghazi later this week. Trade sources state that the tanker was booked by trading firm Vitol, but this has not been independently confirmed. (Reuters Africa, Reuters Africa)

MAY 25: Reuters Africa reports on the strategy of rebel forces positioned outside of Zintan. Rebels in Zintan have said that they do not engage in official contact with NATO or military advisers to help coordinate their military strategy on the ground. The media outlet reveals that “spotters on the ground track coordinates of the enemy positions using Google Maps and sent word via Skype to Benghazi, which [passes] the information to NATO advisers in the de facto rebel capital.” (Reuters Africa)

MAY 25: Rebel forces clashed with Sudanese mercenaries fighting on behalf of Qaddafi near the Libyan border with Sudan. A rebel commander, Ahmed Zway, said that opposition fighters had destroyed a vehicle belonging to the Sudanese mercenaries in clashes about 18 miles west of Kufra. The rebels had surrounded the Sudanese force and attempted to capture six other vehicles mounted with weaponry. (Associated Press)

MAY 25: Responding to reports that Italian oil companies have been in talks with the rebels about setting up a new National Oil Company, the Austrian energy group OMV has denied participating in talks with opposition leaders. (Reuters)

MAY 24: A report by the Washington Post details how Libyan rebels “robbed” the Central Bank of Libya in March to pay for the uprising against Colonel Qaddafi. Ali Tarhouni, the rebels’ finance minister, said, “Let me put it this way: We robbed our own bank.” The media outlet describes how rebel leaders drilled a hole into the wall of the bank and hired a locksmith to open the vault inside. In doing so, opposition leaders have turned the Qaddafi government’s money into “the lifeblood of their uprising.” U.S. officials and other countries have failed to address questions about the legality of the rebels’ strategy to acquire state funds. (Washington Post)

MAY 24: Jordan has recognized the Transitional National Council as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people. The country plans to appoint an envoy to Benghazi. (AFP)

MAY 24: U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs, Jeffrey Feltman, visited the rebel headquarters in Benghazi on Tuesday and “delivered a formal invitation to the council for the opening of a representation in Washington.” Feltman also declared that the U.S. would be providing the rebels with $53.5 million in aid for humanitarian needs and $25 million in non-lethal military supplies. (AFP)

MAY 24: African migrants who were detained by the rebels in Zintan say they were “coerced into the army of [Qaddafi] in the belief they faced an al Qaeda invasion.” The men had been arrested during battles near Zintan on April 15 and May 1. Opposition sources also claimed that Qaddafi has imported mercenaries from Mali and Chad to fight in the conflict. (Reuters Africa)

MAY 23: A rebel spokesperson reported that pro-Qaddafi forces have shelled neighborhoods in the west and south of Misrata. Rebel officials stated that they have pushed government troops fifteen miles from the city center but that Qaddafi troops have been trying to advance from the west. The shelling follows clashes with Qaddafi troops in Dafinia on Sunday, which destroyed a tank. (Reuters Africa)

MAY 22: Four explosions were observed outside the opposition-held town of Zintan. Rebels in western Libya said they believed that the explosions were from Grad rockets fired by government troops. Rebels along Libya's border with Tunisia said that the region has been continuously shelled by Qaddafi forces, who are attempting to close a key supply route. (CNN)Reuters Africa)

MAY 22: The European Union's top foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton visited Libyan rebels in Benghazi and opened an EU office in the city. On her visit, Ashton declared that, "[Qaddafi] must leave and we must have a future for Libya that belongs to the people of Libya and moves forward as they would wish." U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs Jeffrey Feltman also visited Benghazi for dialogue with rebel officials. In his three-day visit, Feltman is scheduled to meet the head of the Transitional National Council, Mustafa Abdel Jalil, as well as other opposition leaders. (Wall Street Journal, Voice of America, BBC)

MAY 22: The New York Times reports that a small fleet of Libyan boats operating outside of Misrata has contributed to the rebels’ success in the city. Two dozen fishing vessels, sailing under NATO approval, have been organized into a fleet that has provided Misrata with supplies. (New York Times)

MAY 21: Four French nationals who had been detained by the rebels since May 11 were released to French consular officials at the Egyptian border. The men had been working for a private security company and were accused of spying by the rebels. (CNN, Washington Post)

MAY 21: At least one rebel was killed when rebels clashed with pro-Qaddafi forces in an area between Ajdabiya and an oil town to the west of the city. (Reuters Africa)

MAY 21: In a major offensive by pro-Qaddafi forces in western Libya, a brigade of rebels was deployed to cut off Qaddafi’s advance. One rebel was killed and three others injured in the fighting. Meanwhile, Haji Usama, one of Qaddafi’s former military commanders, stated that contact has been lost with rebels in Rayayan with the exception of one commander. (CNN)

MAY 21: Libyan rebels have been accused of reprisal attacks, seen as retribution against those once allied with Qaddafi. The Washington Post argues that “such targeting raises questions about the character of the government taking shape in eastern Libya and whether it will follow basic principles of democracy and human rights. Moreover, such acts could further deepen divisions in Libya’s tribal society and diminish the sort of reconciliation vital for stability in a [post-Qaddafi] era.”  The media outlet states that rebel commanders have raided the homes of suspects without court warrants. (Washington Post)

MAY 20: The Washington Times reports that opposition forces are creating a list of items they hope Western countries will buy for them, including food and medicine. A rebel spokesperson said “If the U.S. doesn’t trust us with our own money, we will provide them [with] lists and they should buy the supplies for us.” (Washington Times)

MAY 20: Opposition forces are conferring with Qatari banks about facilitating international money transfers, “a move aimed at recapitalizing banks and boosting the economy through trade.” Abdullah Shamiya, a rebel economy chief, said that "Our banking system is paralyzed because of the sanctions. Now we're trying to lift the sanctions on some banks, in order to have them conduct money transfers abroad freely."(Reuters)

MAY 19: Rebel forces have been subjected to constant shelling by government troops in Zintan, resulting in the death of at least one person and six other injuries. The International Medical Corps also reported fighting in Yafrin and declared that the humanitarian situation in the city is deteriorating due to low levels of food and supplies. (CNN)

MAY 19: Libyan rebels responded to President Obama’s address on the Middle East on Thursday, calling it “good enough.” Jalal Gallal, a spokesperson for the Transitional National Council said that “Overall, the speech was positive for Libya," while opposition leaders said they were satisfied to hear President Obama call their interim government "legitimate and credible." (CNN)

MAY 19: The New York Times reports that even after the recent appointments of new ministers to the Transitional National Council, women now occupy only two of the forty positions in the leadership council. Though a woman had been expected to be named as an education minister, a man ultimately was appointed to the position. Hana el-Galla, the prospective candidate to the position, said “We are having a problem now. In the old regime we didn’t have any voice in the economic and political sector. Now, in these two sectors we don’t have any presence.” (New York Times)

MAY 19: A rebel media official has claimed that opposition forces have launched a television channel, "Libya for the Free," to promote their fight against pro-Qaddafi troops. The official claimed, "Our goal is to reach the largest number possible of people inside and outside Libya in order to counter [Qaddafi’s] channels which are engaged in psychological and media warfare against the rebels." However, part of the channel’s transmission is blocked by a regional satellite owned by the Egyptian company Nilesat. (Reuters Africa)

MAY 19: Abdel Hafiz Ghoga, a Libyan opposition leader, said that at least 15,000 people have been killed over the course of the conflict. Ghoga called for NATO to increase their attacks against pro-Qaddafi forces, saying "We hope for greater intervention to protect our people and civilians…As long as there is a threat to civilians, strikes must be intensified against the military machine." (Bloomberg)

MAY 18: Libyan rebel sources said that pro-Qaddafi forces have shelled villages in the western mountains using Grad missiles and rocket launchers. Medghamas Abu-Zakhar, a rebel in Yafrin, said that government forces were shelling villages at the top of the Nafusa mountain range in an endeavor to gain control of higher ground. (Washington Times)

MAY 18: The economy minister for the rebel-led Transitional National Council, Abdullah Shamiya, has urged the international community to accelerate efforts to transfer promised aid to the rebels. He declared, “Let us use some of our frozen Libyan money to meet our basic needs and to buy commodities, fuel and medicine for our people in the liberated areas…. It’s taking too long. Why? They want to make sure that everything goes according to international law and that’s understandable, but please do it fast.” (Bloomberg)

MAY 18: A spokesperson for the rebels, Mahmud Shammam, has requested that the Transitional National Council be permitted to represent Libya at the June 8 OPEC meeting in Vienna. He stated, “We want to attend, and will study the legal procedure…We still do not know if OPEC will invite us.” (AFP)

MAY 18: Shelling has ceased at the Dehiba-Wazin border crossing, allowing the border to reopen and traffic to pass through. Reuters reports that the “border crossing is a lifeline for rebels on the western front of Libya's conflict, allowing food, medicine and fuel to reach rebel-held towns on the mountain plateau, and ambulances to take casualties to hospital in Tunisia.” (Reuters)

MAY 17: Fighting flared up in Misrata on Tuesday, with seven people wounded in clashes with pro-Qaddafi forces. Meanwhile, rocket attacks by government troops forced Libyan rebels to retreat briefly from a key border crossing. However, opposition forces later regained control of the Dehiba-Wazin crossing amid an offensive that killed three rebels and wounded several more. (Reuters)

MAY 17: Italy has established a group made up of government officials and companies to secure ties with the rebel government in Libya. An Italian newspaper has reported that Italian oil and gas group Eni could potentially meet with Italian bank UniCredit and Libyan rebels in order to discuss the export of Libyan oil to the country. (Reuters Africa)

MAY 17: Rebel oil and finance representative Ali Tarhouni said thatthe opposition forces’ leadership has set a budget of $3 billion to spend over the next six months. However, Tarhouni said that the body is still pursuing the cash to finance that amount. He stated, "I'm chasing liquidity, I'm asking for any form that will give us liquidity, a line of credit, loans. So far we haven't been able to get it." (Reuters)

MAY 17: The rebels' finance and oil minister, Ali Tarhouni, has reported that the chairman of Libya's National Oil Corporation (NOC), Shokri Ghanem, has defected from the Qaddafi regime. Tarhouni said, "As far as we know he has left his post, this is as far as we know in the past 24 hours." (Reuters)

MAY 16: A poll conducted by Garyounis University in Benghazi has found that Libyans in rebel-held areas are “split over whether they would accept foreign troops on their soil.” The poll found that most Libyans would only accept a troop presence in a supporting role. However, 87 percent of the 1,638 people surveyed said that they would accept foreign troops in the country to provide technical advice or military training. (Reuters)

MAY 16: Guma el-Gamaty, a spokesman in Britain for the rebel-led Transitional National Council, expressed support for the International Criminal Court’s plan to seek warrants for Colonel Qaddafi and his son. He declared that it is “a very important step along the way to putting more pressure on [Qaddafi] and his son to leave or face arrest.” (Associated Press)

MAY 16: Libyan rebels claimed that they have driven Qaddafi forces from strategic points located on the outskirts of Misrata. Released photos have revealed more than 200 rebel vehicles stationed at the southeastern gate of Misrata, providing the rebels with tighter control of access points into the city. (Associated Press)

MAY 15: Members of the rebel-led Transitional National Council met to create interim legislative and executive bodies for a “post-Qaddafi era.” Mustafa Abdel Jalil, a leader of the TNC, said that the current 31-member council would be expanded and turned into an interim parliament. It was uncertain if the planned alterations to the council came at the request of Western governments who had held meetings with opposition leaders over the past week. (Wall Street Journal)

MAY 15: In weekend battles, rebel forces defeated two brigades of Qaddafi troops based in the city of Zlitan. Colonel Ahmed Bani, a spokesperson for the rebels, said that “In Zlitan, the revolutionaries have forced them [Qaddafi fighters] out of their camps — there were two big brigades — and are on the highway, fighting them.” (Associated Press)

MAY 14: EuroNews reports that Libyan rebels have driven the last of Qaddafi forces from Misrata, following weeks of clashes. Footage attained by the media outlet shows the rebels preparing to make territorial advancements outside of the city to “stem any further attacks by Qaddafi loyalists.” (EuroNews)

MAY 13: Libyan rebel leader Mahmoud Jibril met with national security officials at the White House on Friday. Though the U.S. “[recognized] the council as a ‘legitimate and credible interlocutor of the Libyan people,’” the U.S. did not official recognize the Transitional National Council as the official government of Libya. (Christian Science Monitor)

MAY 13: Ahmed Bani, a rebel military spokesman, has denied reports that a NATO strike has resulted in civilian casualties in Brega. Libyan state television had previously reported that an airstrike hit a religious conference in the city, killing sixteen and injuring forty others. However, Bani has declared that all civilians have left the Brega area. Meanwhile, a doctor in Misrata reported that at least ten people were killed in sporadic shelling in the city on Friday, though rebels retained their control of the airport and civil defense base. (CNN)

MAY 13: Libyan rebel leader Mahmoud Jibril is scheduled to visit the White House on Friday to make a case for U.S. recognition of the rebel-led Transitional National Council. Jibril is scheduled to hold talks with U.S. National Security Adviser Tom Donilon. White House spokesman Jay Carney has indicated that the Obama administration is not yet ready to recognize the council. He said that, "If the question is recognizing the [Transitional National Council] as the official government of Libya, I think that's premature." (AFP)

MAY 13: Air force brigadier Ammar Bilqasem, a military attaché at the Libyan embassy in the United Arab Emirates, has quit his post in order to join the rebels. He said, “I announce my split from the regime and my joining and wholehearted support for the February 17 revolution…Victory is near.” (Reuters)

MAY 13: The arrival of food aid to cities in western Libya has been delayed due to a fear of attack which “threatens the rebels’ single supply route.” In addition, at least one remote town is blockaded by government troops. A single supply route running near the Tunisian border is exposed at several low sections to the positions of pro-Qaddafi forces, a concern for humanitarian agencies trying to deliver supplies. The World Food Program has said that it is concerned about access to food for people who are isolated due to the fighting. (Reuters)

MAY 12: According to Mahmoud Jibril, a leader of the Libyan opposition council, military advisers from Qatar have helped rebel forces organize themselves. A doctor at a military base in Benghazi said that Qatari trainers have been instructing new recruits in basic infantry training. Rebel officials have said that Qatar is alone in providing military training to the rebels, though Britain, France, and Italy have said that military experts would be sent to work with the rebel army to “improve their military organization structures, communications and logistics.” (Washington Post)

MAY 12: A rebel official has said that “oil fields in eastern Libya are still not secure enough for pumping to resume,” five weeks after a main oil field was attacked by government troops. The new minister for the economy, Abdullah Shamiya, declined to give a date for when oil production might resume. (Reuters Africa)

MAY 12: U.K. Prime Minister David Cameron said that he has asked the Transitional National Council to set up an office in London, amidst a pledge to provide “several million pounds worth of equipment to the police in Benghazi and enhance Britain’s presence in the rebel stronghold.” In a joint press conference with a leader of the council, Mustafa Abdel Jalil, Cameron declared, “We will work with you to ensure the international community increases the economic, diplomatic and military pressure on this bankrupt regime.” (Bloomberg)

MAY 11: The rebels have appointed two new ministers to their Transitional National Council’s executive body. On Wednesday, Abdullah Shamiya was appointed economy minister, while Ahmed Hussein was named minister for the interior and local governance. Shamiya had previously spent years as a political prisoner under Qaddafi, while Hussein has served as a judge. (Bloomberg)

MAY 11: While Libyan rebel leaders arrived in the U.S. to urge the Obama administration for financial assistance, Senator John Kerry has drafted legislation to provide some of the $34 billion in Libyan assets frozen by the White House to the rebel fighters. Kerry said that “I am currently drafting legislation at the request of the State Department and the administration that will authorize the transfer of available cash assets to the [Libyan Transitional National Council] so that they will have available money. It will not come from an American taxpayer. It will come from Col. Qaddafi himself.” Rebel sources have declared that they are “down to less than two weeks of cash reserves.” (Wall Street Journal, National Journal)

MAY 11: Mahmoud Jibril, a leader of the rebels' Transitional National Council, was in Washington on Wednesday to ask for quicker action to address the worsening humanitarian situation in the country. He also declared that NATO had “established a line of communication with rebel commanders in Benghazi, enabling it to improve the effectiveness of its strikes.” (Washington Post)

MAY 11: Rebel forces took control of the airport in Misrata after heavy clashes with pro-Qaddafi forces. The rebels also seized weapons and ammunition from the government’s retreating forces. A rebel spokesperson said that five rebels were killed and 105 injured in two days of fighting in the city. Rebels in Misrata are also pushing west toward the nearby city of Zlitan. Meanwhile, rebels in Ajdabiya said that fighting had subsided on Wednesday after they had claimed recent territorial gains. (Associated Press)

MAY 11: An AFP correspondent reports that at least two rebels were killed and fifteen were injured near the town of Zintan in the west of the country. The correspondent said that rebel forces came under fire from snipers when they entered the village of Rya Ina, located nine miles east of Zintan. (AFP)

MAY 10: A spokesperson for the U.S. State Department said that the first shipment of non-lethal U.S. military aid for the rebels has arrived in Benghazi. A shipment of 10,000 meals arrived to the port, with batches of medical supplies, boots and protective gear set to arrive in the coming days. The shipment is part of the $25 million in non-lethal assistance that President Barack Obama had previously authorized for the rebels. (Associated Press)

MAY 10: The European Union foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton said that an EU office in rebel-held Benghazi will be opened “so that we can move forward on the support we have discussed with the people, to support civil society, [and] to support the interim national council.” A team from the European External Action Service is set to travel to Benghazi to plan for the opening of the technical mission. (EUObserver)

MAY 10: The latest assaults by NATO warplanes appear “to reflect increased cooperation between NATO and the rebel army,” thereby facilitating the rebels in making territorial gains around Misrata. South of the city, fresh fighting was observed in Souk al Arab and at al-Ghiran, near the city's airport. A witness said that government troops are surrounded by rebel forces and holed up in the airport and local air force academy. Meanwhile, rebels fighting in Brega have been “bogged down for weeks,” unable to take control of the city. (Reuters Africa, Washington Post)

MAY 9: A Libyan opposition newspaper has reported that rebel fighters have been leading an uprising in the suburbs of Tripoli after being supplied with light weapons by defecting security officers. However, a Libyan government official in Tripoli has denied the report, saying, “It’s peaceful out there.” (Al-Arabiya)

MAY 9: In a major battle to the west of Ajdabiya, Libyan rebels killed fifty-seven government soldiers and destroyed seventeen vehicles belonging to pro-Qaddafi forces. The fighting took place on the outskirts of al-Arbaeen, a small town positioned between Ajdabiya and the city of Brega. (Reuters)

MAY 9: Opposition forces made gains against pro-Qaddafi forces in Misrata, after hundreds of rebel fighters broke through one of the front lines and consolidated their position to the west of the city. The rebels have stopped short of the town of Ad Dafniyah, where they have surrounded government troop positions. (New York Times)

MAY 9: United Nations aid chief Valerie Amos said that the delivery of humanitarian supplies to Libya has been delayed because of the way sanctions have been applied on the Qaddafi regime. "The manner in which sanctions are implemented and monitored is causing serious delays in the arrival of commercial goods. So if for any reason commercial supplies coming into the country are not able to come in, then it has an impact on that central distribution system and it has an impact on food stocks across the country." Amos said the rebel-held east of the country possesses enough food stockpiles to last two months, while the west has adequate supplies for three months. (Reuters)

MAY 9: Opposition leaders convened a meeting of twenty-five local council leaders representing areas of central, western, and southern Libya. The leaders, assembling in the United Arab Emirates, articulated their recognition of the rebel-led Transitional National Council as the sole representative government of Libya. (New York Times)

MAY 9: The rebels have sold $100 million worth of oil paid for through a Qatari trust fund in U.S. dollars. An oil industry source said that, "So far around 1 million barrels have been sold at $100 million and the money is used to buy basic commodities like food and other aid." (Reuters UK, Reuters Africa)

MAY 8: The rebel-held towns of Zintan and Wazin were attacked by pro-Qaddafi troops, forcing inhabitants in the area to flee over the border to Tunisia. Eighty shells fell on the Tunisian side of the border, prompting complaints by the Tunisian government to Libyan officials. (Wall Street Journal)

MAY 8: Saddoun Misurati, an opposition spokesman, said that food and supplies are running low in Misrata due to government shelling, which has slowed humanitarian deliveries to the Misrata port. Rebel forces and pro-Qaddafi troops engaged in fighting near the airport on Sunday, though there has been no word on casualties. (Los Angeles Times)

MAY 7: A rebel spokesperson said that Italy has agreed to supply the opposition group with weapons. However, officials in Rome have said that only “self-defense material” would be sent to the rebels, ruling out the supply of assault weapons. (AFP)

MAY 7: Jalal Gallal, a rebel spokesperson, said that government forces destroyed three oil tanks in Misrata on Saturday, which may lead to gasoline shortages for vehicles and electricity in the city. Rebel sources have also alleged that a government helicopter adorned with the Red Cross logo had tried to plant mines in the Misrata harbor, though the report is unconfirmed. (Los Angeles Times )

MAY 6: Abdel Hafiz Ghoga, a Libyan opposition leader, said that weapons would arrive in rebel-held areas of Libya within days. Moreover, the rebels plan to utilize funds “pledged for humanitarian and reconstruction needs to buy weapons from the Italian government.” Ghoga said that money requested at the ‘22-nation Libya Contact Group’ meeting in Rome would be used to pay for the weapons. Senior State Department officials have said that the fund created in Rome is for humanitarian and reconstruction needs, not weaponry. (Washington Post)

MAY 6: Mahmoud Jibril, a leader of the rebels' Transitional National Council, has welcomed the aid plan approved by the ‘22-nation Libya Contact Group.’ Jibril had presented plans for a post-Qaddafi Libya to members of the group, who convened in Rome on Thursday. He stated that an interim government would take over day-to-day administration and governance, comprised of “members from the [Transitional National Council], technocrats from the [Qaddafi] regime, senior military and intelligence officers and a supreme court judge.” A constitution would also be written and put to a vote, followed by parliamentary and presidential elections. (BBC)

MAY 5: Pro-Qaddafi forces fired Grad rockets toward the outskirts of Nalut. Rebels near the town say they are preparing for an attempt by pro-government troops to retake a strategic border crossing in the area. Meanwhile, a rebel fighter told Reuters that intense fighting was taking place around the village of Ghezaya. The rebel said that “there are several dead and injured on both sides.” (Reuters, Associated Press)

MAY 5: The Libyan government has condemned U.S. plans to unblock Qaddafi’s frozen assets and give them to the opposition forces. Libya Deputy Foreign Minister Khaled Kaim said, "Any use of the frozen assets is like piracy on the high seas. They (the rebels) are not a legal entity. They are not a country. The country is not divided according to a referendum or to a United Nations resolution. This is illegal ... If we stay silent about it, I think we will be living in a jungle." (Reuters)

MAY 5: Hundreds of migrants and injured people that had been evacuated from Misrata reached Benghazi on Thursday. After depositing 180 tons of humanitarian aid in Misrata and picking up the 800 passengers, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) ship docked in Benghazi. A spokesperson for the IOM said that “The IOM hoped to carry out a further evacuation mission but this would depend on the security situation.” (AFP, Reuters)

MAY 5: A rebel spokesman said that Denmark, Spain and the Netherlands had recognized the rebels’ Transitional National Council as the sole representative government of Libya, but officials from those countries have denied it. Danish foreign ministry spokesman Jean Ellermann Kingombe said "We have not taken steps to formally recognise the TNC. There is a willingness to engage [with the TNC] but no formal recognition." (Reuters, Reuters Africa)

MAY 5: A rebel spokesperson in Zintan has said that government forces have fired around 50 Grad rockets into the town. A refugee fleeing the town said that the pro-Qaddafi forces are “firing from a mountain about 10 km (6 miles) to the east of Nalut. They are firing Grads." (Reuters)

MAY 5: During the ‘22-nation Libya Contact Group’ talks in Rome, the U.S. and its allies agreed to create a trust fund for the Libyan opposition forces. The Wall Street Journal reports that “the potential $4.5 billion fund…would be guaranteed, and partially filled, by assets of the [Qaddafi] regime that were frozen by the United Nations and European Union this year.”  Kuwait has pledged $180 million to the fund, while Qatar promised $400-500 million. The Transitional National Council has said that it needs $3 billion in order to operate in the coming months. Meanwhile, Secretary Clinton has pledged that the Obama administration will pursue legislation that would allow the Libyan rebels to access some of the assets seized from Qaddafi. (BBC, Wall Street Journal, Reuters)

MAY 4: French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe said that the upcoming ‘Contact Group’ talks in Rome will focus on obtaining financing for the opposition and facilitating contact with defectors from Qaddafi’s government. Juppe said, “There are a lot of officials from Tripoli who want to talk. We are going to try to coordinate." (Reuters)

MAY 4: Pro-Qaddafi forces shelled Misrata's Qasr Ahmad district, killing five people, while aid personnel worked to evacuate hundreds of migrants, journalists, and wounded Libyans on a rescue ship docked in the Misrata port. A spokesperson for the International Organization for Migration said that “hundreds of Libyan civilians had also tried to board the ship in desperation to get out of Misrata. But with a limited capacity, the ramp of the boat had to be pulled up so that the ship could pull away from the dock in safety.” (Reuters, Reuters)

MAY 3: Government forces shelled the city of Zintan on Tuesday with more than 40 Grad rockets. The stream of rockets fired from pro-Qaddafi troops caused thousands of people to flee the town to neighboring Tunisia. (Reuters, International Business Times)

MAY 3: On Tuesday, Ali Tarhouni, the rebel finance minister, told reporters that “available funds are sufficient only to keep the rebel zone afloat for three or four weeks ‘at the most.’” He said that on a daily basis anywhere between $42 million to $84 million is needed to “run things.” (Los Angeles Times)

MAY 3: The New York Times reports on a “clandestine network of rebel workshops where makeshift weapons have been designed, assembled and pushed out.”Civilian pickup trucks have been converted into armored vehicles, while conventional munitions have been transformed into other types of lethal arms. Besides armored pickup tricks, the workshops have produced caltrops that are designed to puncture the tires of vehicles as well as other modified munitions. (New York Times)

MAY 3: A spokesperson for the rebel fighters has said that fighting has flared in Misrata in the area of Bourouia. The spokesman said, “The [pro-Qaddafi] brigades are trying to enter the Tamina area, east of the city." (Reuters)

MAY 3: Opposition forces have stated that they expect billions of dollars in aid soon from Western governments to “feed and supply their territories in the east and support their campaign against [Qaddafi].” Meanwhile, the Transitional National Council issued a statement which said that revenue generated from oil sales by the Libyan rebels will finance economic and other social services for the Libyan citizens. The statement said, “Public funds will be made transparent and will be used for the betterment of the Libyan people and the development of the country." However, they said that there are no current plans to resume significant oil exports, as the current priority of the rebels is to ensure that oil installations are first made secure. (Reuters, UPI, AFP)

MAY 2: Pro-Qaddafi forces shelled the rebel-held town of Zintan in western Libya on Monday evening. A rebel spokesperson said that at least 10 Grad rockets landed in the town. He said that they were fired from positions north of Zintan. (Reuters

MAY 2: Rebel military spokesman Colonel Ahmed Bani offered the Transitional National Council’s congratulations of the reported death of Osama Bin Laden. Bani included that the US should also “do the same to Qaddafi.” He claimed that Libyan rebels have evidence that al Qaeda have sent fighters to Libya on the side of Qaddafi. (Reuters Africa)

MAY 1: Rebel forces have increased security at eastern oilfields since production halted following strikes by pro-Qaddafi forces in early April. Abdeljalil Mayouf, the information manager for the rebel-held Arabian Gulf Oil Company (Agoco), stated that resumption of oil production depended upon the level of security at the oilfields. The Misla oilfield, described as heavily damaged from strikes in April, is currently being assessed by a technical review team according to Mayouf. (Reuters Africa

MAY 1: Opposition leaders in Benghazi doubted reports that Qaddafi’s youngest son, Saif al-Arab, was killed in a NATO airstrike over the weekend. They claimed that the Libyan government was attempting to ratchet up sympathy among the international community and the Libyan population. (ABC)

APRIL 30: The Libyan opposition rejected Qaddafi’s cease-fire proposal, declaring the leader has lost all credibility. Abdul Hafidh Ghoga, vice president of the Transitional National Council, reaffirmed the opposition demand that Libya’s future cannot accept one “which Gaddafi’s regime plays any role.” (Al-Jazeera)

APRIL 30: Rebel fighters in Ajdabiya have taken advantage of the current lull in the fighting in the east, and have been regrouping. City opposition leaders described a noticeable transformation in rebel tactics following an increase in military training. Rebels have been fortifying their positions by digging trenches and establishing outposts to monitor Qaddafi’s forces. Despite the improvement, a western observer stated that “they [the rebels] will never win this war using their military.” (Washington Post)


APRIL 30: The Warfalla tribe is reportedly divided over whether to support the current rebellion or the Libyan government. The Warfallas control the strategic town of Bani Walid, which sits at a crossroads between Tripoli and eastern Libya.  Tribal loyalty has been split between Warfalla member Mahmud Jibril, the transitional government leader, and Mansour Khalaf, the Warfalla tribal chief, a known supporter of Qaddafi. Both men have issued statements, affirming their tribe’s support for either the rebellion or the government. The Warfallas occupy a precarious position in Libyan tribal politics following a failed 1993 coup of the regime that resulted in hundreds of Warfallas being imprisoned. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 29: Contrary to claims by Libyan state television, rebel sources have said that the town of Kufra has not fallen to pro-Qaddafi troops. A rebel spokesperson said, “Qaddafi’s forces have been shelling Kufra since this morning, and in the afternoon they entered the town. But they are not in full control. The battle is not over, and the situation is unclear.” (Washington Post)

APRIL 29: A senior rebel member, Omar al-Jernazi told CNN that opposition forces had retaken control of the Wazin area on the Tunisian border, following an assault staged on pro-Qaddafi troops in the area. Eight government troops and a rebel soldier were injured in the clashes. Pro-government troops had previously taken control of the border on Thursday. (CNN, Washington Post)

APRIL 29: Pro-Qaddafi forces killed at least nine people and injured thirty others in Misrata on Friday. Rebel forces clashed with government troops at a gate on the city outskirts. A doctor in the city said, that “Four tanks from forces loyal to [Qaddafi] were shelling the city with rockets and mortars from the southwest.” (CNN)

APRIL 28: Twelve people were killed in Misrata on Thursday in shelling by pro-Qaddafi forces. A local doctor said, “Here in Misrata we have 12 killed, including two females. Those killed were ... shelled by Grad (rockets) at their homes or shelled by mortars." (Reuters)

APRIL 28: Rebel forces and loyalist troops clashed in Zawit al Mahjoub, a town several miles west of Misrata. The rebels successfully defended the attack as five pro-Qaddafi troops were killed in the fighting. (New York Times)

APRIL 28: Opposition soldiers and government forces battled for control of the Wazin border crossing in western Libya. A rebel spokesperson said that the rebels gained control of the border crossing late in the day after receiving help from fighters from the Nafusah mountain range. Rebel spokesman Mazigh Abouzakhar said that “rebels in the region, now calling themselves the United Forces of the Mountains of Nafusah, control the cities of Nalut, Jadu and Zintan.” However, Qaddafi forces have “surrounded the cities of Yifran, Gala’a and Kiklah and begun advancing on them, with ground forces and tanks surrounding the hospital at the edge of Yifran.” (New York Times)

APRIL 27: A NATO warplane attacked a rebel position in Misrata, killing twelve fighters and wounding five. The warplanes struck a salt factory that the rebels had moved into on Tuesday. Meanwhile, fighting continued in the city at the end of Tripoli Street, where remaining pro-Qaddafi troops exchanged gunfire with opposition fighters. The New York Times reports that “Qaddafi forces still held the approaches to the city, and positions beyond the range of the rebels’ weapons from where they could strike the city with artillery and ground-to-ground rocket fire.” (New York Times)

APRIL 27: U.S. ambassador to Libya Gene Cretz said that a U.S. diplomat sent to Libya to evaluate the Transitional National Council has affirmed that "it is a political body which is worthy of our support." In a statement, Cretz said that, “They continue to say the right things. They are reaching out to the international community. They're trying to be as inclusive as possible.” However, Cretz stated that the Obama administration had not yet decided on whether to officially recognize the council as the sole representative government of Libya. (Los Angeles Times, Reuters)

APRIL 27: Seven rebel fighters were killed in Misrata when pro-Qaddafi forces assaulted a checkpoint with artillery fire and rockets. A local doctor said that, “Fifteen of our rebels at a checkpoint near the front line have been attacked by [Qaddafi’s] troops with heavy artillery and then with rockets. We received seven dead and four injured." (Reuters)

APRIL 27: Libyan rebels have dug trenches outside a Wazin checkpoint after hearing that pro-Qaddafi forces were preparing to retake the Dehiba-Wazin crossing. Meanwhile, a rebel spokesman stated that heavy artillery fire was traded in Zintan on Wednesday, injuring at least 15 people and destroying five houses. (Reuters)

APRIL 26: The Obama Administration has decided to allow business transactions with the Libyan rebels to take place. RTTNews reports that “American firms can now do business with opposition forces for purchasing oil and other energy resources from the rebels.” The Treasury Department has said that U.S. businesses are permitted to do business with the opposition, as long as the Qaddafi regime does not "receive any benefit from such activities or transactions." (RTTNews)

APRIL 26: Opposition forces have replaced a number of their volunteers in Ajdabiya with experienced military officers in order to “bolster its image as a credible adversary.” A rebel officer, Abdul Salam Mohammed, said that “We need order here, discipline. These rebels just did what they pleased. They acted on whim, driving up and down the highway with no strategy. It had to stop.” (Reuters)

APRIL 26: Rebel forces were caught off guard when pro-Qaddafi forces launched a surprise operation in Misrata on Tuesday. The attack followed a retreat from the city by government troops earlier in the week. Sadiq Fitury, a rebel official in charge of communications, said that the rebel leadership had alerted NATO, who consequently responded with airstrikes to counter the government offensive. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 26: A rebel army officer stated that pro-Qaddafi troops have reinforced their positions around Brega and concealed their long-range missile batteries from NATO warplanes. Reporting from the western edge of Ajdabiya, the officer said, "There are 3,000 government troops in Brega and the next two towns. They have been building up their presence. We are controlling the area from here to al-Arbeen (halfway to Brega) but they still have snipers in the area, hiding in the desert behind the sand dunes, and they are active.” Another rebel spokesman, Jalal el-Galal, stated that British military advisers had arrived to Benghazi to provide training for opposition forces. (Reuters Africa)

APRIL 26: In a newly released file by WikiLeaks, it has been revealed that a former Guantanamo detainee with alleged connections to al-Qaeda is now a senior rebel leader. Abu Sufian Ibrahim Ahmed Hamuda Bin Qumu was once identified as a “probable member of Al Qaida and a member of the African Extremist Network” and “likely to pose a threat to the US, its interests and allies.” Following his release, he was sent back to Libya and released from prison in 2008. (Telegraph)

APRIL 26: Rebel forces have developed make-shift weapons from modified pick-up trucks, known as “technicals.” The Telegraph reports that opposition fighters have attached artillery and anti-aircraft guns to their civilian vehicles, though they offer little protection against government tanks. (Telegraph)

APRIL 25: Twelve people were killed in Misrata during shelling by pro-Qaddafi forces stationed outside the city. A residential neighborhood and hospital were attacked in the fire, which continued through the evening. Despite the continuous attacks by Qaddafi troops, the Wall Street Journal reports that the rebels seized the last government-held position in the city. (Los Angeles Times, Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 25: Two rebel representatives met with Libya's foreign minister Abdel Ati Al-Obeidi and African Union officials to discuss a potential solution to the conflict. Ramtane Lamamra, the African Union Commissioner for Peace and Security, stated that "This will be the first time that they (rebels) are attending a meeting here. We will meet both sides one after the other.” Representing the rebels in the meeting is Al Zubedi Abdalla, a former ambassador to South Africa, and Bujeldain Abdalla, a former Libyan ambassador to Uganda. (Reuters Africa)

APRIL 25: A rebel spokesperson has claimed that the withdrawal of pro-Qaddafi forces from Misrata is a part of a new strategy to escalate shelling by government forces. The spokesman said, “We think the pull-out was a signal to escalate the shelling. We think he is going to destroy the city from a distance."  (Telegraph)

APRIL 25: Opposition leaders have claimed that it would take a month for oil to be shipped out of rebel territory, due to weekend attacks on two main oil fields. UPI reports that no shipments have left Libya since early April, when one million barrels were sold to the international oil trader Vitol. (UPI)

APRIL 25: Bloomberg reports that during a visit to Kuwait, the leader of the National Transitional Council, Mustafa Abdel Jalil, stated that the council has received $181 million (50 million dinars) from the government of Kuwait. (Bloomberg)

APRIL 25: AFP reports that fighting broke out in Al-Harabah in a “battle for control of the Nalut-Zintan road, which was closed.” In an attempt to assist the rebels, a NATO air strike was conducted near Al-Ruhaybat, located east of Nalut. (AFP)

APRIL 24: An overnight shelling in Misrata by pro-Qaddafi forces continued until NATO planes flew over the city. Reuters Africa reports that the government troops have been “shelling occasionally when NATO planes [are] not around.” (Reuters Africa)

APRIL 24: Four people were killed and nine others wounded by shelling from pro-Qaddafi troops in the town of Zintan. AFP reports that between six and nine Grad rockets hit homes in the locality, resulting in the casualties. (AFP)

APRIL 24: Rebels stated that pro-Qaddafi forces have continued their assault on Misrata from the southern outskirts of the city, after the government troops were driven from the city limits. The rebels said that at least fifty-eight people were killed over the weekend by government shelling. (Washington Post)

APRIL 24: The Washington Times reports that three members of the Senate Armed Services Committee, Senator Joseph Lieberman, Senator John McCain, and Senator Lindsey Graham, called for immediate military aid to be transferred to opposition forces. Senator McCain also described the opposition in Benghazi as a “very legitimate government.” The Washington Post additionally reports that, “Worried that the rebels do not have the momentum to reach Tripoli, Graham suggested that NATO and the Obama administration ‘go to Tripoli, start bombing [Qaddafi’s] inner circle, their compounds, their military headquarters.’” (Washington Times, Washington Post)

APRIL 23: The Los Angeles Times reports that officials loyal to Qaddafi have claimed that small areas in the Western mountains are currently under control of armed Islamic insurgents. However, the rebels have denied the accusation, a claim that several foreign journalists have affirmed. (Los Angeles Times)

APRIL 23: Reacting to reports that pro-Qaddafi forces are working with local tribes to negotiate with rebels in Misrata, a rebel spokesperson has denied that any negotiations have occurred. Colonel Ahmed Bani said, “There are no tribes and there are no negotiations. It's only Libyan people fighting against [Qaddafi’s] forces." Bani also said that shelling has continued in the city by government forces, despite reports that the government troops had withdrawn. (CNN)

APRIL 23: Rebel fighters “appeared on the cusp of a major victory” against pro-Qaddafi troops in the city of Misrata. In the day of fierce fighting, dozens of government soldiers were killed and captured and at least twenty-five rebels were killed. In addition, over 100 rebel fighters were wounded. Qaddafi forces retreated to the Misrata hospital from their previously held positions on Tripoli Street. Troops who had been captured by the rebels said that the army had been ordered to retreat. (Wall Street Journal, New York Times)

APRIL 22: Fighting in Misrata continued near the city’s central hospital and vegetable market. A rebel fighter speaking on condition of anonymity said that, “the number of civilian casualties dropped dramatically Friday for the first time in several weeks” after government snipers were driven from a key structure. (Associated Press)

APRIL 22: Opposition forces have claimed to have recaptured the city center of Misrata. The rebel account came as pro-Qaddafi forces maintained that they still control eighty percent of the city. A spokesperson for the rebels charged that, “According to our fighters, they [Qaddafi’s troops] seem to be acting like headless chickens, because their command and control has been disrupted by NATO.” (Washington Post)

APRIL 22: Senator John McCain visited Benghazi on Friday to meet with representatives of the rebel government and military. Senator McCain praised the rebels and called them heroes, as well as commended their attempt to overthrow Qaddafi. He said that he had visited the country in order “to get an on-the-ground assessment of the situation.” (Guardian, New York Times)

APRIL 21: U.S. aid to the rebel forces has been “held up by the White House and no funds or goods have been disbursed.” The $25 million of non-lethal military aid was announced on April 15th by the Department of State, but has not been signed off on by the White House. State Department spokesperson Mark Toner stated that the “announcement of the 25 million in drawdown assistance was not fully cooked. That still needs to head to the White House, be confirmed or ratified by the president, and then we can begin implementing it.” (Foreign Policy)

APRIL 21: The Long War Journal reports that a top Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) leader was killed by pro-Qaddafi forces earlier this month. Known as Urwah, he had been “detained in Iran in 2004 but allowed to return to Libya to participate in the fighting against [Qaddafi's] regime earlier this year. (Long War Journal)

APRIL 21: Opposition forces in Misrata said that they had gained ground in the city, as “recent airstrikes and aid shipments had enabled rebel fighters to take the offensive.” A spokesperson for the rebels claimed that the fighters had “killed more than 100 [Qaddafi] soldiers on Thursday and 51 on Wednesday, when they also captured 40 others.” He said that opposition forces had also driven away snipers who had planted themselves along Tripoli Street. (New York Times)

APRIL 21: Rebel forces have captured a key post on the Tunisian border, following three days of intense fighting outside Nalut. AFP news agency reports that “the rebels seized the Wazin post after up to 100 pro-Gaddafi soldiers, including officers, fled to Tunisia on Thursday.” In addition, Tunisia’s state-run news agency reported that thirteen pro-Qaddafi soldiers turned themselves over to the Tunisian military. (BBC)

APRIL 20: Following a meeting with the leader of the National Transitional Council Mustafa Abdel Jalil, French President Nicolas Sarkozy pledged stronger military action. Sarkozy stated, "We are indeed going to intensify the attacks and respond to this request from the national transition council." Reuters reports that Abdel Jalil also invited Sarkozy to pay a visit Benghazi to demonstrate France’s support for the opposition forces. (Reuters)

APRIL 20: Abdel Hafiz Ghoga, spokesman for the National Transitional Council, said that “Libyan rebels would not object to the presence of foreign ground forces to protect a safe haven for civilians.” Ghoga also declared that NATO air strikes which aim to protect citizens have improved both in the west and east of the country. He said, "The performance of the alliance (NATO) in protecting going well, not only in [Ajdabiya] but also in Misrata and in Tripoli.” Ghoga additionally reported that opposition forces have made advances towards Brega. (Reuters)

APRIL 20: Seven rebel fighters were killed in Misrata on Wednesday as fighting continued in the city. In addition, more than 120 injured men and women reported to the hospital to receive treatment for conflict-induced injuries. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 20: Tim Hetherington, the Oscar-nominated co-director of the 2010 film "Restrepo," and fellow photographer Chris Hondros were killed while accompanying a rebel patrol in Misrata. An explosive landed near a group of press photographers, killing the men and injuring photographer Guy Martin. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 20: Rebel forces said they engaged in fierce fighting with pro-Qaddafi troops in Misrata. Abdelsalam, a rebel spokesman, reported that “Fierce fighting is taking place now on Nakl el Thequeel road which leads to the port. Gaddafi forces have been trying to control this road to isolate the city." In addition, fighting has erupted on Tripoli Street, as government snipers have been positioned there. (Reuters Africa)

APRIL 20: France and Italy have announced that they will join Britain in sending military advisers to train rebel forces. A spokesperson for the National Transitional Council, Mustafa Gheriani, said that, “My understanding is that it will all be administrative help, nothing with weapons and nothing in the field." (MSNBC)

APRIL 19: Heavy fighting between opposition forces and pro-Qaddafi troops continued in Misrata. NATO Brigadier General Mark van Uhm reported that “The situation on the ground is fluid there, with ground being won and lost by both sides. [Qaddafi’s] forces have shelled Misrata indiscriminately.” Eight people were killed in the clashes on Tuesday. (Washington Times, Reuters Africa)

APRIL 19: Defensive barriers were erected by rebels on the western edge of Ajdabiya on Tuesday. A rebel outside the western gate of the city declared, “We want to move forward, but we're stuck here for now." The Los Angeles Times reports that “Rebel fighters here seem to recognize they have little chance of advancing along the coastal strip absent a new round of NATO airstrikes or an influx of heavy weapons from allies.” (Los Angeles Times)

APRIL 19: The Obama administration has informed Congress that it is providing $25 million in nonlethal aid to the Libyan rebels. A letter released by Joseph E. Macmanus, acting assistant secretary of state for legislative affairs, stated that, “The president’s proposed actions would provide urgently needed nonlethal assistance to support efforts to protect civilians and civilian-populated areas under threat of attack in Libya.” (Washington Times)

APRIL 19: The New York Times reports on discrepancies and dysfunction amongst the leaders of the rebel forces. This week, General Hifter claimed to serve as the field commander of the rebel forces, though the National Transitional Council later insisted that General Younis remains in charge of the military. The media outlet additionally reports that “General Hifter made it clear that he viewed General Younis as an officer who was serving in a support or logistical role, and he explicitly blamed him for a string of humiliating retreats…” Meanwhile, a spokesperson for the State Department has claimed that the rebels are making progress towards establishing a consistent chain of command. (New York Times)

APRIL 19: The head of the National Transitional Council, Mustafa Abdel Jalil, met with Italian foreign minister Franco Frattini. Following the meeting, Frattini announced that “a meeting of the international contact group on Libya in Rome early next month would discuss ‘legal instruments to allow the sale of oil products’” as well as funnel assets owned by Qaddafi to the rebels. He also declared that Italy was debating the option of sending "night-vision equipment, radars and technology to block communications. We don't have many alternatives. One of the alternatives is the use of ground troops. Italy is not in [favor] of sending ground troops." During the meeting, Jalil also told the Italian foreign minister that 10,000 people had been killed and up to 55,000 wounded in the conflict so far. The rebel leader is next scheduled to meet with French president Nicolas Sarkozy in Paris on Wednesday. (AFP, Associated Press)

APRIL 18: Al Jazeera has described the new method of organization being employed amongst the rebel fighters, reporting that the forces have been organized into brigades sanctioned by the National Transitional Council. Various foreign supplies have also reached the rebels, including trucks carrying communications equipment, new radios, and body armor. (Al Jazeera)

APRIL 18: The Washington Post reports that five people were killed in Misrata during heavy fighting between the rebels and pro-Qaddafi forces. Meanwhile, the media outlet cites rebels who say that Qaddafi “appears to be trying to cut the city off from the port, currently its only source of food, water and medicine.”  (Washington Post)

APRIL 18: Britain said it would “send military officers to advise opposition forces on organization and communications, but not train or arm fighters.” British Foreign Secretary William Hague announced that twenty senior military advisers would be sent to Benghazi. He announced, "They will advise the National Transitional Council on how to improve their military organizational structures, communications and logistics, including how best to distribute humanitarian aid and deliver medical assistance." (Reuters, Associated Press)

APRIL 18: Tunisia's state news agency has announced that 11,000 Libyan citizens have fled to Tunisia over the last week, arriving from a mountainous region in the western half of Libya. The media outlet declared that the Libyan refugees are residing in camps or with Tunisian families. Reuters reports that the refugees have reported that Qaddafi's forces were “shelling homes, poisoning wells and threatening to rape women in the region.” (Reuters)

APRIL 18: Rebel fighters repelled an attack from government forces in Ajdabiya. Mustafa Gheriani, a spokesman for the rebels’ National Transitional Council, stated that pro-Qaddafi fighters had shelled the city earlier. (Bloomberg)

APRIL 17: Rebel fighters fled parts of Ajdabiya on Sunday after pro-Qaddafi forces conducted rocket and artillery attacks on the western outskirts of the city. The New York Times reports that “Scores of rebel pickups and other vehicles could be seen leaving the eastern approaches of Ajdabiya, and explosions could be heard in the city. They were headed toward the rebel capital, Benghazi, about 100 miles north.” Some rebels remained within Ajdabiya to prevent it from falling to government forces. (New York Times)

APRIL 17: At least seventeen people were killed in Misrata as rebels gained new ground in the city. Considered one of the bloodiest days of fighting in the city, pro-Qaddafi forces continued to pound the city with rocket and artillery fire. Meanwhile, health officials in the city estimate that approximately 600 to 700 people have died in Misrata since the uprising began. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 16: General Abdul Fatah Younis, the military leader for the rebels, declared that opposition forces expected to capture the city of Brega by Sunday. He declared, “We are in a not-too-bad state of preparedness, and our army fighters, youths and rebels are now doing a good job — and in the morning there will be good news.” However, eight rebels were killed and twenty-seven injured on the road leading to Brega, after a shell struck one of the rebels’ rocket launchers. (New York Times, Guardian)

APRIL 16: The Wall Street Journal reports on rebel gains in an area southwest of the city of Misrata. A doctor working with the rebels stated that the area, Al-Ghayran, is serving as the main front line in the battle. Meanwhile, the Washington Post reports that “Doctors reached through Skype said five people died in [Misrata] on Saturday, bringing the death toll there to 36 in the past three days alone and at least 276 since the siege began in late February.” (Wall Street Journal, Washington Post)

APRIL 16: Opposition forces have drafted a constitution, a document meant to serve as “a milestone in the rebels' effort to move rapidly from a grass-roots uprising to a government with all the trappings of statehood.” The document was drafted by a group of intellectuals on behalf of the National Transitional Council. The Wall Street Journal also reports that the opposition forces have taken additional steps towards establishing a government: “they have received foreign envoys and visiting heads of state as a sovereign government would. They have taken steps to govern their borders, such as making a new exit and entry stamp for visitors, and recording arrivals and departures. They have formed parallel leaderships and new headquarters for critical government institutions, such as the central bank and the National Oil Company. They are in the process of re-creating a tax authority.” (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 16: General Abdul Fatah Younis, the military leader for the rebels, announced that rebel forces have received weapon supplies from “unidentified nations.” The emir of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, on Thursday stated that “his country would provide weapons to the rebels and that deliveries of antitank weapons might already have reached them.” A spokesman for the rebels’ National Transitional Council, Mustafa Gheriani, also announced that opposition forces have opened “professional training centers,” though he did not provide explicit details on what the training would entail. (New York Times)

APRIL 16: A spokesperson for the opposition forces, Abdel Hafiz Ghoga, stated that the rebels and NATO forces have established a joint operations room. However, Ghoga declined to provide any more information about the type of coordination facilitated by the newly established center. (Al Arabiya)

APRIL 15: Eight people were killed in a fresh assault by pro-Qaddafi forces on the city of Misrata on Friday. Local residents told Al Jazeera that around 120 rockets hit the city on Friday morning, resulting in the eight deaths and seven injuries. The city continues to be surrounded by pro-Qaddafi forces.  A local doctor, Dr. Abu Shahma, has said that the death toll in the city has reached the hundreds. A rebel commander in Benghazi, General Ahmed al-Ghatrani, said that “With Misrata under rebel control, it is far more complicated for Col. [Qaddafi] to move forces and supplies overland between Tripoli and the front in the east. Misrata is the key to western Libya." (Reuters, Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 15: On Friday, when asked about potentially arming the rebels, French Defense Minister Gerard Longuet stated that “France and Britain want to extend air strikes to the logistics and decision centers of [Qaddafi’s] army, rather than start arming Libyan rebels.” (Reuters)

APRIL 14: The rebel-led National Transitional Council has released an “urgent statement” on the political and security situation in Libya. The statement appeals to the international community to move against the “anticipated massacre of men, women and children.” In addition, the report states that the Qaddafi regime “is accelerating attacks on [Misrata], using sophisticated weapons including GRAD missiles, with the aim of breaching the city and massacring its civilians including women, children and the elderly.”  (National Transitional Council)

APRIL 14: On Thursday, rebel opposition council member Suleiman Fortea said that “The West must take fresh action to stop the killing of civilians in Misrata and consider arming Libya's rebels or sending troops." After meeting with French president Nicolas Sarkozy, Fortea stated, "It's not possible to leave it like this. They have to protect people with any means, whether they have to go on the ground, go with different weapons, different machinery or supplying weapons to the local people, to the army in Libya." Fortea also reported that the rebels “are surrounded by Gaddafi troops on all sides but the sea, which is the only gate for humanitarian supplies. And this port is being affected by being blocked by [Qaddafi’s] tanks." (Reuters, Reuters)

APRIL 14: Reuters cites U.S. and European officials who argue that too little is known about the Libyan opposition forces and they remain too fragmented for the U.S. to organize, train, or arm them. The media outlet reports that the more intelligence agencies learn about the rebels, the more they appear to be “hopelessly disorganized and incapable of coalescing in the foreseeable future.” U.S. officials also reported that Saudi Arabia and Qatar may be willing to provide weapons to the opposition forces. In fact, “there are ‘indications’ that Qatar has begun to supply some easy-to-use weapons, including shoulder-fired anti-tank rockets, to the opposition.” (Reuters)

APRIL 14: A spokesperson for the rebels said that pro-Qaddafi forces in Misrata killed at least twenty-three people on Thursday. The opposition spokesperson said that, “The death toll has risen to 23 and dozens are wounded. Those killed are civilians and most of them are women and children. We now know that at least three Egyptians were killed in the attack." Meanwhile, hundreds of residents of Misrata took to the streets in protest against the Qaddafi regime. (FoxNews, Reuters Africa)

APRIL 14: Fresh fighting erupted in Ajdabiya on Thursday. AFP reports that “A convoy of some 60 rebel vehicles at a staging point west of the city recaptured from loyalist fighters at the weekend came under heavy artillery and mortar fire, prompting a salvo of rockets in riposte.” Around 100 rebel vehicles were seen heading to the front line. (AFP)

APRIL 13: The Washington Times reports that Western and Arab leaders agreed to “provide ragtag Libyan rebels with ‘material support’ and funds, possibly from [Qaddafi’s] frozen foreign bank accounts.” Though they were not explicit on the type of material resources they planned to offer, several sources reported that some individual countries are considering providing the rebels with arms. (Washington Times)

APRIL 13: The New York Times reports that in a show of support for the opposition forces, NATO, Arab, and African ministers met with rebel representatives in Doha, Qatar. Prior to the meeting, a spokesperson for the rebels stated that, “NATO is very slow responding to these attacks on the civilians. We’d like to see more work toward protecting the civilians.” (New York Times)

APRIL 13: France and the U.K. have called on allies to do more to assist the rebels on the ground. British Foreign Secretary William Hague said that Britain has provided non-lethal assistance to the rebels, such as telecommunications equipment, but denied that Britain was supplying opposition forces with arms. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 13: Italy and Qatar “revived calls to give Libya's rebels the means to fight off [Qaddafi’s] forces.” A spokesperson for the Italian foreign minister, Maurizio Massari, stated that the allies should help opposition forces "get the materials necessary to defend themselves and protect civilians." (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 13: Opposition forces have obtained access to Qaddafi’s cell phone network and have reestablished their own communications, with the help of Ousama Abushagur, a 31-year-old Libyan telecom executive who first drafted the plan. The new network will provide “more than two million Libyans their first connections to each other and the outside world.”  Abushagur says that he “drew up a diagram on the back of a napkin for a plan to infiltrate Libyana, pirate the signal and carve out a network free of Tripoli's control.” The United Arab Emirates and Qatar have subsequently assisted in purchasing several million dollars of telecommunications equipment. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 12: Rebel spokesperson Abdel Hafiz Ghoga said that opposition forces have requested weapons from countries that have formally recognized the National Transitional Council as the representative of Libya. Ghoga said, “We have submitted a list of military and technical equipment we need.” (Reuters)

APRIL 12: The city of Zintan came under fresh attacks by pro-Qaddafi forces. A rebel spokesperson reported that one person was wounded after pro-Qaddafi forces north of the town fired mortar rounds at the city. He said that government forces “unable to get into Zintan itself, were targeting people in nearby villages and rounding up anyone suspected of links to the rebels.” (Reuters)

APRIL 12: Rebel forces have claimed that they had beaten back two offensives by pro-government troops in Misrata. Four rebels were reportedly killed and twenty three wounded in fighting in the city on Tuesday. Meanwhile, a local resident said that “About 1,000 people held a peaceful protest close to the beach in the Kasir Ahmad area to express their support for the rebels and to reject the ceasefire proposal put forward by the African Union.” (Reuters)

APRIL 12: Opposition forces have claimed that female snipers from Colombia have joined government forces in the fight to keep Qaddafi in power. The rebels have also stated that “they have captured Algerian mercenaries and claim that the authoritarian government of Belarus has sent more than 100 military advisers to help [Qaddafi].” They additionally claimed that the Qaddafi regime has received aid from supporters in the countries of Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Ukraine.” (Washington Times)

APRIL 12: Opposition forces have hired a public-relations firm to assist them in earning recognition from the U.S. government. The Harbour Group has reportedly signed a pro-bono contract with the rebels’ National Transitional Council. The managing director of the firm, Richard Mintz, said, “It’s the right thing to do. They need help and we are pleased that we are able to do that. It is in the U.S.’s interest, in the world’s interest.” (The Hill)

APRIL 12: Suleiman Fortia, a rebel representative from Misrata, stated that stocks of food, water and medical supplies have been stretched thin in the city. He said that “electricity, fuel and water had been cut off, and the city remained under attack by tanks, artillery and snipers.” Fortia also said that 1,000 people had been killed by pro-Qaddafi forces in the city, though Human Rights Watch cited a doctor who said that hospitals in Misrata have documented about 250 dead. (New York Times, Human Rights Watch)

APRIL 12: Rebel leaders have stated that they are not ready to hold talks with Musa Kusa, Qaddafi’s former foreign minister who defected to Britain. On Tuesday, British officials stated that Kusa was headed to Qatar to play a role in mediating talks between the rebels and Qaddafi government. A spokesman for the Transitional National Council, Abdel Hafiz Ghoga, said that, “We are sending a delegation to Doha solely to meet with the contact group, but it’s not part of the agenda to meet with Mr. [Kusa].” (New York Times)

APRIL 12: Opposition forces have declared that they have held their positions during heavy fighting in the city of Misrata. A rebel engaged in the fighting said, “There was heavy fighting in Tripoli Street and the rebels held their positions. Also, very intense fighting occurred on the eastern side of Misrata on the Nak el Theqeel road. The rebels repelled the attack." (Reuters Africa)

APRIL 11: The most prominent Libyan defector, former foreign minister Musa Kusa, stated that Libya “could become ‘a new Somalia’ unless all sides involved in the conflict stopped it from descending into civil war.” In his first public statement since defecting to Britain, Kusa said that, “The solution in Libya will come from the Libyans themselves, through discussion and democratic dialogue." (Reuters)

APRIL 11: Reuters reports that opposition forces have resorted to utilizing guerilla tactics in their fight against pro-Qaddafi forces. The outlet states that, “the shift toward more urban resistance could add a new dimension to the two-month-old war and work to erode [Qaddafi’s] support base in his main western stronghold.” (Reuters)

APRIL 11: The Transitional National Council's top envoy in Washington, Ali Aujali, urged the U.S. to be a “major player in the crisis,” as Qaddafi and his forces continue to “gain power.” Aujali also stated that Qaddafi forces have conducted new attacks on Misrata, making it necessary that the coalition “act[s] now.” (The Hill)

APRIL 11: Rebels have reiterated their rejection of the peace plan proposed by the African Union, which calls for a cease-fire and discussions on government reform. The Washington Post reports that, “As meetings went on inside Benghazi’s Tibesty Hotel, thousands of protesters gathered outside to express their dissatisfaction with the plan, chanting denunciations of [Qaddafi] that grew louder throughout the day.” The rebels called for Qaddafi to leave before negotiations could begin. (Washington Post)

APRIL 11: A spokesperson for the Department of State, Mark Toner, said that the Obama administration’s chief envoy to the Libyan opposition, Chris Stevens, was “continuing to meet with rebel leaders in Benghazi to discuss a future democratic transition and how the United States could help.” (Washington Post)  

APRIL 11: Rebels claimed that five people were killed and twenty injured by pro-Qaddafi forces in Misrata. A local resident stated that, “Heavy and fierce fighting is now taking place at the eastern entrance to the city and in the centre ... on Tripoli Street." (EuroNews, Reuters Africa)

APRIL 10: Libyan rebels have rejected a proposed political road map issued by the African Union that calls for dialogue and an immediate cease-fire. The rebels have stated that they would only be satisfied with the ouster of Qaddafi and his family. The Washington Post reports that opposition forces “are deeply skeptical about the neutrality of the African Union, which they see as packed with Gaddafi’s allies. They are also likely to be disappointed by a peace plan that fails to wring any concessions from Libya’s leader at the outset.” A rebel spokesperson, Mustafa Gheriani, stated that, “It’s very simple, and this is the Libyan people’s opinion. If it does not include his departure, resigning his job, it won’t be accepted by the street.” (Washington Post)

APRIL 10: Fighting continued in Ajdabiya for the second day in a row. Rebels announced that they had control of the city as they sent security personnel to southern oil fields to protect their “economic lifeline” from pro-Qaddafi forces. The New York Times attributed advances made by the rebels to NATO airstrikes. (Washington Post, New York Times)

APRIL 10: The Washington Post reports that members of the Transitional National Council convened with Western diplomats in hotels in Benghazi to converse about the role of NATO in the conflict. Following the meeting, a Western diplomat reported that “there was no talk of coalition ground troops entering Libya and that the rebel council understood the difficulties NATO faces.” (Washington Post)

APRIL 9: The rebel-led Transitional National Council has put pressure on the Obama administration and U.S. Treasury Department to release a portion of the $34 billion in funds that had recently been seized from Qaddafi. A letter written to the Treasury Department by the Council's top envoy in Washington, Ali Aujali, stated, “The Council now needs immediate access to the [Qaddafi] regime's frozen assets in U.S. financial institutions to meet the basic needs of the Libyan people.” The letter asked for a joint U.S.-rebel trustee committee to be established to manage the assets.  However, U.S. officials have stated their concerns that the money could end up in the hands of Islamic extremist groups. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 9: An opposition spokesman reported that eight rebels were killed by pro-Qaddafi forces and twenty two others were injured in Misrata. Meanwhile, a doctor at a Misrata hospital put the number injured at twenty-five. (AFP)

APRIL 9: Rebels retreated from their positions in Ajdabiya, following artillery fire by pro-Qaddafi forces. The New York Times reports that “as the shells exploded on the streets, loyalist forces infiltrated the city, fighting gun battles in its center against a contingent of local men who had stayed to defend their homes.” (New York Times)

APRIL 8: A spokesperson for the rebel forces released a statement regarding the NATO airstrike which mistakenly killed rebel personnel on Thursday. Mustapha Gherryani stated, "We are trying to put this incident behind us. Libya is what is important and NATO has been a great ally. We regret the loss of life, we basically give our sorrows to the mothers who lost their kids, but this is a war. It's a very fluid war. The line changes all the time and mistakes can happen. We understand it. We hope we don't have any more." Gherryani furthermore said that the rebels had selected a point man to oversee communications with NATO in order to avoid future friendly fire incidents. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 8: Rebels have retreated to the city center of Ajdabiya following missile fire from pro-Qaddafi forces. An agency reporter has additionally reported that Ajdabiya remains in the hands of the rebels. (Reuters)

APRIL 8: According to Reuters, the rebels in Misrata, “have cut the Tripoli road into four parts using huge containers filled with sand and stones." Rebel spokesman Hassan al-Misrati stated, "This way they have managed to block the back-up coming to the snipers. We have managed to liberate a few buildings." (Reuters)

APRIL 8: Rebel fighters located outside of Ajdabiya have strategically painted their vehicles with peach-colored paint to try to distinguish their trucks and tankers from pro-Qaddafi units. Salam Salim, a rebel fighter, stated that "We are painting the trucks so NATO won't hit us." (Associated Press)

APRIL 8: The Associated Press reports that opposition forces have sent scouts to Brega to evaluate whether pro-Qaddafi forces have taken “advantage of a mistaken NATO strike that pounded opposition tanks and sent survivors into retreat on Thursday.” Rebel fighters have worried that Qaddafi forces may have advanced closer to Ajdabiya following the accidental bombing. (Associated Press)

APRIL 7: The Los Angeles Times reports on the Voice of Free Libya, a radio station that has emerged to serve as the voice of the rebels in eastern Libya. The media outlet reports that, “The station airs revolutionary music, pop songs, rebel-themed poetry — and calls from cranky citizens irritated by the chaos stirred up by the rebellion. It also provides news reports from the front by unpaid amateur reporters, plus caller updates on casualties, missing persons, rocket attacks and funerals for shuhada, or "martyrs," killed by [Qaddafi] forces.” (Los Angeles Times)

APRIL 7: In a follow-up to reports on the NATO airstrike that killed rebels outside of Brega on Thursday, Abdul Fatah Younis, the commander of the rebel army, stated that “It is likely it is NATO by mistake.” After demanding an apology from NATO, Younis declared that, “It is not possible to make a mistake with 20 tanks advancing on a large patch of desert land. We hope that such a mistake will not be repeated.” The tanks, which had been confiscated by pro-Qaddafi forces and refurbished by the rebels, had appeared for the first time on the front lines on Thursday. (New York Times)

APRIL 7: Sources reported that China will purchase the first oil cargo from Libyan rebels. While a Gulf-based trader said that, "The delivery will be made in China, but it's still not clear who the buyer is," other sources said Vitol is involved in the purchase. Reuters reports that it is a “trial deal which is likely to clear the way for Europe to resume badly-needed purchases of Libyan oil.” (Reuters)

APRIL 7: The Financial Times reports that the rebels’ attempt to finance their fight against Qaddafi forces rests on 300 miles of pipeline that stretches through eastern Libya. The outlet reports that “The pipeline, built in the 1960s, connects the Marsa el-Hariga oil terminal, near Tubruq, with the rebel-controlled Sarir, Misla and Nafoora oilfields and is a lifeline for the opposition movement, which is running out of cash.” Ben Cahill, an expert on Libya at PFC Energy, the Washington-based oil consultancy, noted that “Tripoli knows that oil is the lifeline of the rebel movement.” (Financial Times)

APRIL 7: Rebel fighters to the west of Ajdabiya retreated towards Benghazi, following an attack by pro-Qaddafi forces. Sources report that pro-government forces appeared not to have entered the limits of the city, and at least some rebel fighters remained outside Ajdabiya. (Washington Post)

APRIL 7: Rebel forces stated that a NATO airstrike hit a rebel posting outside of Brega, killing thirteen fighters in the attack. Later, a rebel spokeswoman alleged that the airstrike came from pro-Qaddafi forces that had violated the no-fly zone. The Washington Post reports that, “NATO said it was investigating the initial rebel version of what happened, but it did not reveal whether coalition warplanes were in the area outside Brega at the time of the strikes. The alliance said fighting in the area has been ‘fierce’ for several days, and the battlefield remains confused and disorganized.” (BBC, Voice of America, Washington Post)

APRIL 6: Fighting continued to the east of Brega, with opposition forces making advances on desert territory they had previously lost on Tuesday. The Wall Street Journal reports that military commanders have taken increased control over strategic decisions from the rebels, designating rebel volunteer personnel to fight under professional military officers. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 6: Opposition forces made their first sale of oil on Wednesday with the shipment of over $100 million in oil. The Wall Street Journal reports that a “Liberian-flagged oil tanker departed the northeastern port of Marsa al-Hariga carrying one million barrels of oil.” Production was halted later on Wednesday due to strikes by pro-Qaddafi forces on a rebel-controlled oil installation in southeastern Libya. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 6: Rebel forces met with the U.S. envoy to the Libyan opposition Chris Stevens, a move the rebels hope will lead to an eventual recognition of the Transitional National Council by the United States as the formal representation of the Libyan government. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 6: Libyan rebels have placed the blame for a pause in air strikes on Turkey, the only “Muslim member” of the alliance. Guma el-Gamaty, a coordinator for the Transitional National Council, declared that, “We believe the reason why NATO attacks have come down in the last four or five days is because Turkey is vetoing a lot of them.” (Washington Times)

APRIL 6: The head of the opposition’s central bank has stated that the rebels are at a risk of “running out of currency within weeks.” Ahmed el-Sharif stated that, “When you get to the point of rationing liquidity, whether local or foreign currency, we are on the edge of a crisis.” He said that the asset freeze of Qaddafi has hurt the rebel forces as well. (Financial Times)

APRIL 6: A spokesperson for NATO has said that they would do everything to “protect the population of Libya's besieged rebel stronghold of Misrata,” following accusations by the rebels that NATO has failed to protect the citizens of the city. (Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty)

APRIL 6: Opposition forces reiterated their criticism towards NATO’s “failure to provide effective air support.” A rebel fighter, Abdallah Daboob, questioned, “Ever since Gadhafi started looking for a way out, negotiating for an end, NATO has backed off. Our question for NATO is this: are you with us or against us?" Abdul Fatah Younis, the top general for Libya’s rebels, stated, “I would like to say to you people that NATO did not provide to us what we need. If NATO wanted to remove the siege on Misrata, they would have done so days ago. And they're using the excuse that 'we don't want to kill civilians.' Every day, women, children and seniors are being killed. This crime will be hanging from the necks of the international community until the end of days." Younis additionally said that, “Either NATO does its work properly or we will ask the Security Council to suspend its work.” (Wall Street Journal, LA Times, Reuters)

APRIL 5: The Wall Street Journal reports that “100 rebels assembled on the eastern edge of Brega with about six vehicles mounted with machine guns and rocket launchers, but it was unclear if they planned to move back into the city.” (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 5: Libyan rebels were driven miles to the north of Brega after coming under heavy fire by pro-Qaddafi forces. The New York Times reported that “artillery fire came often and with deadly accuracy, turning the road from Brega into an extremely dangerous corridor where the hot steel shrapnel of an exploding shell could rip through a vehicle or rebel position at any time. In those circumstances, the ragtag rebel forces chose to withdraw to a safe distance.” (New York Times)

APRIL 5: A rebel spokesman called Abdelsalam reported heaving shelling of Misrata by pro-Qaddafi forces around the center of the city and the port. He said the forces used “tank fire, artillery, and mortars. The shelling started around 10am and stopped at 5 in the afternoon.” (Reuters)

APRIL 5: The rebels congregated on the eastern boundary of Brega on Tuesday, following their advance into a residential area of the city on Monday. Fighting in Brega intensified as residents fled the city to nearby locations in the desert. Some reports indicated that rebels had retaken most of Brega, the front line in the battle for control of the coastal towns between Ajdabiya and Sirte. (Washington Post, Voice of America, Al Jazeera)

APRIL 5: Chris Stevens, the U.S. envoy to the Libyan opposition, arrived in Benghazi to meet with members of the Transitional National Council, to “to get a better idea of who they are, what they want and what their needs and capabilities are.” An unidentified official said that the meeting could lead to eventual U.S. recognition of the council as Libya’s government. (CBS)

APRIL 5: Libya’s Rebel leadership reports that pro-Qaddafi forces are targeting large oil storage tanks to prevent the rebels from exporting their contents for cash. (Wall Street Journal)

APRIL 5: Sky News reports that an oil tanker has arrived at a rebel-held port in Tobruk. A spokesperson for the rebels did not confirm or deny the report. The ship is to be loaded with oil and is probably bound for Qatar. The export of oil is to be the first in nearly three weeks from rebel-held areas of eastern Libya. The value of the high quality crude is estimated to be worth approximately $100m. (BBC, Sky News)

APRIL 4: The United Nations special envoy to Libya Abdelilah al-Khatib announced that the opposition forces possess concerns over their financial resources and want to begin exporting oil and natural gas. He stated, “The council raised concerns about the lack of funds as well as issues surrounding the marketing and sale of oil and gas, stressing that the issue required urgent attention in order to enable the economy to function effectively. The council pointed out that sustainability was dependent on two major sources, loans guaranteed against oil and gas sale and overseas frozen assets." (Reuters)

APRIL 4: Following Italy earlier on Monday, Kuwait recognized the rebel-led Libyan Transitional National Council as the representative for the country. (National Journal)

APRIL 4: Ali Suleiman Aujali, the current Washington representative of the opposition forces and Qaddafi’s former ambassador to the United States, called for rebel access to billions of dollars in frozen Libyan financial assets. He reaffirmed that the rebels would not accept a cease-fire agreement that would leave Qaddafi or his relatives in power. The National Journal additionally reports that, “The White House has said it’s looking for ways of giving the rebels control of some of the frozen money, but has held off on formally recognizing the Benghazi government or turning over all of the money because of fears that militants from al-Qaida and other Islamist groups are fighting alongside the insurgents.” Aujali also called for the continued role of the U.S. in working to oust Qaddafi from power. (National Journal, The Cable)

APRIL 4: Ali al-Essawi, the head of foreign policy for the Transitional National Council, criticized NATO for delays that have complicated rebel ground fighting efforts. He stated, “There’s a delay in reacting and lack of response to what’s going on on the ground, and many civilians have died, and they couldn’t react to protect them.” The New York Times also reported that, “The quiet in the eastern skies on Monday seemed to underscore Mr. Essawi’s sentiment that the international military campaign, after initially turning back Colonel Qaddafi’s army and militias as they swept eastern Libya, had lost momentum, leaving adrift the ground war, waged by rebels with virtually no military experience or structure.” (New York Times)

APRIL 4: Libyan rebels have reportedly refused a peace offer amid reports that Qaddafi’s son, Saif al-Islam Qaddafi, has offered to establish an interim government that would remove his father and implement a form of constitutional democracy in the country. Representatives for the rebels have stated that Qaddafi and his family must leave the country. (The Telegraph)

APRIL 4: Italy recognized the rebel-led Libyan Transitional National Council as the representative for the country, the third country to do so. (Associated Press)

APRIL 4: Opposition forces retook parts of Brega on Monday, attributing the gains to better organization among the fighters. (Associated Press)

APRIL 4: Libyan rebels are advancing towards the oil town of Brega in an attempt to win back territory lost to Qaddafi’s forces. The forces are said to be more organized than many other rebel contingents and are made up of more soldiers who have defected from Qaddafi’s army. (BBC)

APRIL 3: The New York Times reports on tensions within the ranks of rebel leadership. In a meeting earlier in the week, disagreements between the rebel army’s nominal leader Abdul Fatah Younis, rebel field commander Khalifa Heftar, and defense minister Omar el-Hariri were apparent. Heftar was forced out of his leadership role after refusing to work with Younis, though Heftar’s son claims that his father still remains as an army leader. (New York Times)

APRIL 3: A rebel leader on Sunday announced that opposition forces are seeking to institute a parliamentary democracy in the country. Abdelhafed Ghoga, vice chairman for the Transitional National Council stated that, “Libyans as a whole — and I am one of them — want a civilian democracy, not dictatorship, not tribalism and not one based on violence or terrorism.” 

APRIL 3: Rebels clashed with pro-Qaddafi forces in Brega, with the majority of the fighting taking place in the center of the city and surrounding the university. Rebels have reportedly deployed heavier weapons as well as kept less disciplined fighters to the east of the front line. (Reuters Africa)

APRIL 3: Al Jazeera reports that U.S. and Egyptian special forces personnel have been providing military training to opposition forces. An unidentified rebel source told the media outlet that “he had undergone training in military techniques at a "secret facility" in eastern Libya.” (Al Jazeera)

APRIL 2: Rebels have created a “crisis team” to run areas of the country that opposition forces possess control over. The team, led by Mahmoud Jibril, will receive directions from the Transitional National Council. (Reuters Africa)

APRIL 2: Ten rebel fighters were killed by a NATO-led air strike on the outskirts of Brega. A rebel fighter affirmed that, “Some of Gaddafi's forces sneaked in among the rebels and fired anti-aircraft guns in the air," Mustafa Ali Omar, a pro-democracy fighter said. "After that the NATO forces came and bombed them." (Al Jazeera)

APRIL 1: Fierce fighting continued in Brega, as Libyan opposition forces have moved heavier weaponry and additional trained officers to the front lines. The rebels have “sought to marshal rag-tag units into a more disciplined force” and kept civilians away from the front lines. (Reuters)

APRIL 1: Reuters reports that an opposition leader, speaking after discussions with a U.N. envoy in Benghazi, offered “a ceasefire on condition [Qaddafi] left Libya and his forces withdrew from cities now under government control.” Mustafa Abdel Jalil, head of the national council in Benghazi, said "We have no objection to a ceasefire but on condition that Libyans in western cities have full freedom in expression their views...Our main demand is the departure of [Qaddafi] and his sons from Libya. This is a demand we will not go back on." (Reuters)

APRIL 1: Pro-Qaddafi forces assaulted rebel forces in Misrata on Friday. A spokesperson for the rebels said, “They used tanks, rocket-propelled grenades, mortar rounds and other projectiles to hit the city today. It was random and very intense bombardment. We no longer recognize the place. The destruction cannot be described." (Reuters)

MARCH 31: Two Obama administration officials have reported that the U.S. is unlikely to provide arms to opposition forces. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton have both stated their caution on issuing weapons, due to a lack of information on the dynamics and make-up of the rebel forces. Secretary Gates has suggested that, “the United States should stick to offering communications, surveillance and other support, but suggested that the administration had no problem with other countries sending weapons to help the rebels.” Secretary Gates additionally told members of the House Armed Services Committee that, “What the opposition needs as much as anything right now is some training, some command and control, and some organization.” (New York Times)

MARCH 31: Rebels have begun deploying fishing boats to carry medicine and supplies from Benghazi to Misrata in the west. (LA Times)

MARCH 31: The LA Times reports that the rebel effort has begun to fray due to ineffective leadership, a lack of weaponry, decreased morale, and the continued ambush by pro-Qaddafi forces. Some rebels have retreated over 200 miles to Benghazi to regroup, while others have remained at points outside of Ajdabiya. (LA Times)

MARCH 30: A statement on counter-terrorism has been published to the Transitional National Council website, affirming the rebels,’ “commitment to the moderate Islamic values, its full rejection to the extremist ideas and its commitment to combating them in all circumstances,” and their “commitment to all measures and sanctions concerning any individual or entity associated with al-Qaeda and Taliban as determined by the Sanctions Committee.”  In addition, the statement emphasizes the council’s commitment to “work for the enhancement of the important role played by the United Nations, its committees and its task forces on counter-terrorism with a full cooperation, to join and commit to all international conventions and protocols relating to counter-terrorism.” (Interim Transitional National Council)

MARCH 30: The White House has reported that it is considering options for “all types of assistance” to opposition forces in Libya. The U.S. director of national intelligence, James Clapper, additionally compared the rebel forces to a “pickup basketball team.” Despite the rebels’ pleading for arms, no decision has been made on whether the U.S. will provide weapons assistance. (Associated Press)

MARCH 30: Opposition forces in Derna reported that rebel fighters have been pushed further back towards Ajdabiya. (Wall Street Journal)

MARCH 30: The New York Times reports that CIA operatives have been inserted into Libya to make contacts with the rebels as well as to gather intelligence for coalition air strikes. The media outlet states that, “By meeting with rebel groups, the Americans hope to fill in gaps in understanding who the leaders are of the groups opposed Colonel Qaddafi, and what their allegiances are.” (New York Times)

MARCH 30: Under intense shelling and missile attacks, rebel forces abandoned the oil town of Ras Lanuf on Wednesday, continuing to flee eastward towards Brega and then further to Ajdabiya. A spokesman for the opposition forces, Col. Ahmad Omar Bani, admitted that rebel fighters had “dissolved like snow in the sand,” in Bin Jawad and Ras Lanuf, though he called the retreat a “tactical withdrawal.” He said that rebel forces are still engaged in fighting to the east and the west of Brega. (New York Times)

MARCH 30: A U.S. military official has confirmed U.S. intelligence agencies’ suspicions of "flickers of an al Qaeda presence among Libyan opposition fighters.” In a Senate hearing Tuesday, U.S. Admiral James Stavridis, NATO’s supreme allied commander in Europe, stated that there may also exist rebel links to Hezbollah. Stavridis said that the U.S. military has commenced an investigation into the dynamics and make-up of the Libyan opposition. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton furthermore said that the “U.S. is still getting to know the rebels.” A former jihadist, Noman Benotman, has also alluded to “freelance jihadists” operating under the control of the interim national council. (Wall Street Journal, Washington Times)

MARCH 30: Libyan rebels have claimed that condoms and Viagra found on pro-Qaddafi forces are proof of a “campaign of rape waged by the Libyan dictator to terrorize male and female opponents.” Doctors speaking under conditions of anonymity have reported rape victims telling hospital personnel that they had been attacked by the regime’s soldiers. (Washington Times)

MARCH 29: Misrata continued to see clashes between rebel and pro-Qaddafi forces. British Foreign Secretary William Hague reported that, "Regime forces have intensified their attacks, driving back opposition forces from ground they had taken in recent days. Misrata also came under heavy attack yesterday, with further loss of civilian life, including children, from mortars, sniper fire and attacks on all sides from regime tanks and personnel carriers." An official for the Transitional National Council affirmed that, “The front line is fluid right now." (CNN)

MARCH 29: Rebels have retreated from Bin Jawad in an attempt to dodge rocket fire by pro-Qaddafi forces. The Los Angeles Times reports that at one point, rebels surrendered seventy miles in just four hours. Many of the rebels fled to Ras Lanuf before retreating further eastward. (Los Angeles Times)

MARCH 29: Ahead of the London Conference on Libya, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton met with the de facto prime minister of the Libyan Transitional National Council, Mahmoud Jibril, in their second meeting in a little more than a week. A senior U.S. official stated that the meeting aimed to give Secretary Clinton a better perspective on how a post-Qaddafi government may function. Jibril also met with U.K. Foreign Secretary William Hague to discuss “priorities for international assistance.” (Wall Street Journal)

MARCH 29: The Libyan Transitional National Council issued a plea for arms at the London Conference on Libya, held on Tuesday. Mahmoud Shammam, the council's head of media, stated that, "We asked everybody to help us in many ways. One of them is giving our youth some real weapons. If you look to the reports that you have from the streets of Libya or from the cities of Libya you will see that our people have very light arms. You can see that just regular cars are fighting with machine guns. We don't have arms at all, otherwise we finish Gaddafi in a few days. But we don't have arms. We ask for the political support more than we are asking for the arms. But if we get both that would be great." Secretary of State Clinton responded that no decision had been made about arming the rebels, though President Obama has said he has not ruled out the possibility. (BBC, Guardian)

MARCH 29: Government forces continued to block the rebel forces’ westward advance to Sirte. Rebel fighters were repelled east by missile and rocket fire from pro-Qaddafi troops, before retreating to the city of Bin Jawad. The city has seen intense fighting, with one BBC correspondent reporting that the town is no longer controlled by the rebels. It was reported that hundreds of cars have fled east from the town to Ras Lanuf. (BBC, New York Times, Reuters)

MARCH 28: Rebel forces in Benghazi said that they had struck an oil deal with Qatar and have produced about 100,000 barrels of petroleum a day from fields under their control. However, a large buyer of oil products in Europe has declared that, “I am not sure anyone in the oil industry is quite willing to touch it. It’s going to be very difficult to get things going.” The rebels had previously captured all five eastern oil export terminals, which make up two-thirds of Libya’s export capacity. Opposition forces declared that they were in “active discussions” to have sanctions lifted on purchases of crude oil produced in fields under rebel control.  (Washington Post, Reuters)

MARCH 28: Fierce fighting continued in Misrata, where a temporary government administration loyal to the opposition's transitional government in Benghazi has been established. However, a resident of Misrata has said that Qaddafi’s forces still possess a presence on Tripoli Street and guard the entrances to the city. (LA Times)

MARCH 28: After opposition forces reached a point forty-five miles outside of Qaddafi’s hometown of Sirte, their westward advancement was halted by artillery fire from government forces outside the city. (New York Times)

MARCH 28: Qatar became the second nation, following France, to recognize the Provisional Transitional National Council (PTNC) as the “sole legitimate representative” of the Libyan people. At present, the PTNC is a group of 31 members representing the country’s major cities and towns. Of the 31 members, only 13 names have been publicly revealed as many members reside in areas still controlled by Qaddafi. (Sydney Morning Herald)

MARCH 27: Libyan rebels claim that they have signed an oil contract with Qatar to export oil from rebel-held refineries and that the shipments would start within a week. (BBC)

MARCH 28: Libyan state television showed images of wounded men and women in a hospital as well as damaged buildings in Sabha. The station stated that civilians were wounded when bombs struck the city early Monday morning. U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates had previously defended that, "The truth of the matter is we have trouble coming up with proof of any civilian casualties that we have been responsible for. But we do have a lot of intelligence reporting about [Qaddafi] taking the bodies of the people he's killed and putting them at the sites where we've attacked." (CNN)

MARCH 28: Fighting has continued in Nawfaliya, about 110 miles east of Sirte. Opposition forces reported that they had reached a heavily mined road in the area and have been shelled by pro-Qaddafi fighters. (Al Jazeera)

MARCH 28: Opposition forces engaged in clashes with pro-Qaddafi troops sixty miles east of Sirte. General Hamdi Hassi, an opposition commander, declared that, “Sirte will not be easy to take. Now, because of NATO strikes on [the government's] heavy weapons, we're almost fighting with the same weapons." According to Al Jazeera, the opposition's National Council said that it anticipates major clashes to take place in the area around Tripoli, as opposed to Sirte. (Al Jazeera)

MARCH 28: Libya’s former ambassador to the United Nations, Mohammed Abdel Rahman Shalgham, claimed that rebel forces have seized Sirte, the hometown of Qaddafi. However, the pronouncement could not be independently verified. (New York Times, UPI)

MARCH 27: Fresh fighting broke out in rebel-held Misrata, where rebels acknowledged that pro-Qaddafi forces had regained ground in areas of the city after days of clashes. A rebel spokesperson admitted, “Part of the city is under rebel control and the other part is under the control of forces loyal to Gaddafi." A local doctor in the city reported that nine people were killed overnight by government snipers and shelling; while a resident stated that twenty four people were injured in mortar attacks by pro-Qaddafi forces. (Al Jazeera)

MARCH 27: After retaking Ajdabiya, rebel forces continued west to Brega, the oil terminal of Ras Lanuf, and the coastal town of Bin Jawad, capturing all three in a move towards Tripoli. The rebels also claimed to possess control of Uqayla on the Mediterranean coast. Faraj Sheydani, a rebel fighter, said that, “There wasn’t resistance. There was no one in front of us. There’s no fighting.’’ (New York Times, Telegraph, Washington Post, Washington Times)

MARCH 26: Rebel forces retook Ajdabiya, causing pro-Qaddafi forces to retreat for dozens of miles back along the coast. (New York Times)

MARCH 25: Sky News reports that the U.S. has considered the legality of providing a limited supply of weapons to opposition forces. The media outlet reports that, “One of the unintended consequences of United Nations Resolution 1970 was to starve the rebels of the weapons they would need to take on Colonel Muammar Gaddafi. It requires all UN members to ‘immediately take the necessary measures’ to prevent the supply or sale of weapons to the Libyan government - with no exemption for anti-Gaddafi forces.” However, Mark Kornblau, a spokesman for U.S. Ambassador to the UN, Dr. Susan Rice, stated that "Resolutions 1970 and 1973, read together, neither specify nor preclude such an action." (Sky News)

MARCH 25: A spokesperson for the opposition forces, former Libyan Air Force Colonel Ahmed Omar Bani, has pleaded for more weapons and armaments. He declared, "We are facing cannons, T-72 and T-92 tanks, so what do we need? We need anti-tank weapons, things like that. We are preparing our army now. Before there was no army, from now there is an idea to prepare a new army with new armaments and new morals. We've talked with our friends around the world and told them we need help. Not troops or advisers — air strikes are enough. ...Our only foreign expert is Google Earth." Opposition fighters said they had already requested weapons from various countries, but did not specify which countries they had appealed to. (NPR)

MARCH 25: Opposition forces massed for an attack on the town of Ajdabiya, where they fired artillery at pro-Qaddafi forces. Rebels surrounding Ajdabiya appeared to have set up road blocks on the road leading into the strategically important town. Reuters reports that the rebels additionally possess heavier weaponry than had been seen earlier this week. A spokesman for opposition forces, Mustafa Gheriani, said he expected Ajdabiya to be in rebel control on Friday or Saturday, following overnight British and French air strikes. (Reuters)

MARCH 25: 2,000 worshippers attended Friday prayers outside the rebel headquarters in Benghazi. The imam leading the prayers called for unity with inhabitants of cities engaged in fighting in western Libya, thanked the international coalition for intervening, and declared that the opposition movement would triumph. He affirmed, "The new Libya must be democratic. We do not need a new Gaddafi.” (Reuters)

MARCH 24: A rebel spokesperson, Colonel Ahmed Omar Bani, said that opposition forces in Misrata and Zintan had killed an estimated 120 government soldiers during battles on Thursday. (Telegraph)

MARCH 24: Rebel spokesperson Col. Ahmed Omar Bani, reported that forces loyal to Qaddafi have been in negotiations to surrender. In a news conference, Bani stated, “Some of the Ajdabiya militias have asked to surrender to be left alone and to go back home. We are trying to negotiate with these people in Ajdabiya because we are almost sure that they have lost contact with their headquarters." Colonel Bani said that the opposition forces have been talking to government troops through an imam in Ajdabiya, who has been serving as a mediator. (Telegraph)

MARCH 24: A chief spokesperson for the opposition has declared that rebel forces are detaining anyone suspected of serving or supporting the Qaddafi regime. Abdelhafed Ghoga, the chief opposition spokesman, referred to the supporters as "people with bloodstained hands" and "enemies of the revolution." Ghoga warned that any Qaddafi loyalist who does not surrender will face “revolutionary justice.” (LA Times)

MARCH 24: Leaders of the Transitional National Council have declared that they have assisted allied military commanders in Europe in identifying targets for the U.S.-led air assault. Rebel spokesman Ahmed Khalifa stated that, "There is communication between the Provisional National Council and U.N. assembled forces, and we work on letting them know what areas need to be bombarded." Another rebel spokesman, Mustafa Gheriani, affirmed that, "We tell them of urgent situations in areas where we need help to protect civilians being attacked by the regime's forces." (LA Times)

MARCH 24: A local resident of Misrata said pro-Qaddafi snipers firing indiscriminately are the “major problem” in the city. “Gaddafi’s forces have occupied the main street…which stretches from the town centre all the way to the highway and beyond. There are snipers all along the rooftops of that street,” the resident added. (BBC)

MARCH 23: The head of the opposition’s “Feb 17 Martyrs Training Camp” Fawzi Buktif said his forces need military training and assistance from the West. Buktif told reporters “We need Kalashnikovs, stingers, anti-tanks, all types of anti-tanks” in order to push back against forces loyal to Qaddafi towards Tripoli and Sirte. Buktif added that the rebels could fund military assistance purchases through the oil wealth in the eastern part of Libya. (Reuters

MARCH 23: Former interior minister and current opposition forces leader General Abdul Fatah Younis said rebels in Misrata requested weapons from unnamed countries. Younis added “Misrata is destroyed and they need weapons. We try to send them weapons, but of course they were all light weapons. There were no heavy weapons.” (CNN)

MARCH 23: Transitional National Council spokesman Iman Bughaeus announced that Washington University assistant professor of finance Ali Tarhouni has been named the head of the opposition’s financial committee. Tarhouni received a doctorate from Michigan State University in 1983 and specializes in macroeconomics. (Reuters, University of Washington)

MARCH 23: The Transitional National Council announced the formation of an interim government with Mahmoud Jibril as its prime minister. Jibril previously served as the opposition’s foreign representative and met with U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on March 14 in Paris. (Al Jazeera, NYT)

MARCH 22: The Transitional National Council said in a statement that it has established the Libyan Oil Company based in Benghazi to oversee oil production and policies and the Central Bank of Benghazi to oversee monetary policies. (Bloomberg)

MARCH 21: The UN has rejected a Libyan request for an emergency meeting to halt what it called “military aggression” by foreign forces. The call for a meeting is complicated by the fact that the entire Libyan mission to the UN, including the ambassador and deputy ambassador, is in support of the opposition and has called for Qaddafi to step down. (Associated Press)

MARCH 21: Rebels began regrouping for another attempt at a push across Libya following the announcement of a ceasefire by the Libyan military. A spokesman for the rebel alliance told Al Jazeera that some 8,000 of its people have been killed so far in this civil war. (POLITICO)

MARCH 19: Head of the British-Libyan Solidarity Campaign Azeldin al Sharif said rebels mistakenly brought down a rebel fighter jet. (Reuters)  

MARCH 19: Benghazi residents await international help as rebels try to fend off attacks by Qaddafi’s troops. The French government announced it was sending jets to patrol Libyan airspace, the first signs of international military backing against Qaddafi’s offenses. (Associated Press)

MARCH 18: Benghazi residents poured into the streets to celebrate the UN vote to authorize airstrikes against Qaddafi’s forces. (Christian Science Monitor)

MARCH 18: Rebels assaulted Libyan military positions near the western town of Nalut, which is 35 miles from the Tunisian border. A rebel fighter reported 18 pro-Qaddafi soldiers were captured while the rebels suffered one casualty. (Reuters)

MARCH 17: Young, inexperienced fighters holding on to Ajdabiya have been reinforced by about 1,000 trained soldiers who defected from Qaddafi’s army. The rebels gained another success when a spokesman for the opposition reported that a patrol intercepted an oil tanker from Greece carrying 25,000 tons of fuel bound for the government in Tripoli. (LA Times)

MARCH 17: Rebels fought to hold Ajdabiya, 100 miles south of Benghazi, as pro-Qaddafi forces heavily shelled the city. A witness reported that rebel forces pushed out pro-Qaddafi forces from the city’s southern gate and continued to hold the western gate. Rebel aircraft were used to drive pro-Qaddafi forces from the western gate, marking the first time rebels have used air power. (USA Today)

MARCH 17: Members of the Warfalla and Tarhuna tribes held anti-Qaddafi rallies in Benghazi in a rebuke of Libyan state television reports indicating that they had backed Qaddafi. (CSM)

MARCH 17: Rebel forces surrounded pro-Qaddafi forces in the town of Zueitina, 180 miles south of Benghazi, and continued to resist pro-Qaddafi advances from the outskirts of Benghazi. (Reuters)

MARCH 16: Rebel leaders claimed that their forces had regained control of strategic entrances to Ajdabiya, although residents reported that government loyalists were running exit checkpoints and shooting at anyone who approached. The rebels also boasted that they were utilizing a broader arsenal of weaponry. (New York Times)

MARCH 16: Rebel fighters on the road from Benghazi to Ajdabiya have been preparing for a possible offensive by Qaddafi’s forces on Benghazi. Three rebel tanks facing Ajdabiya are spaced at intervals along the road with fighters congregating at towns along the road. (Washington Post)

MARCH 15: Rebels anticipate an attack on Ajdabiya as Qaddafi’s forces began bombing the city’s outskirts. In retaliation to the bombing, opposition forces launched a counterattack to regain the strategic oil city of Port Brega. The counterattack is being headed by Gen. Younis, who was Qaddafi’s interior minister and commander of government special forces before he defected last month. (LA Times)

MARCH 15: Qaddafi has issued a $400,000 bounty on the heads of the top leadership members of the opposition “government-in-waiting,” the National Transitional Council. (Washington Post)

MARCH 14: Secretary Clinton met with Mahmood Jibril, an envoy from the rebel council, in Paris but declined to comment on their conversation. (Washington Times)

MARCH 12: Rebels retreated from the oil town of Ras Lanuf, and moved farther east towards the town of Uqaylah. Opposition Col. Bashir Abdul Qadir told reporters that his forces were forced three kilometers out of Ras Lanuf by bombardments. (Reuters)

MARCH 10: The “National Libyan Council,” the organization claiming to speak on behalf of the Libyan rebels, has declared that it will respect all oil contracts signed by the country. (BBC)

MARCH 10: France moved to recognize the rebel “Libyan National Council” as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people.   This follows France’s first public condemnation of the Qaddafi regime and early call for extended sanctions. (Reuters)

MARCH 9: Rebels remained under siege in the town of Zawiya, 30 miles west of Tripoli, from shelling and sniper fire from pro-Qaddafi forces. A rebel leader claimed his fighters were in the main square in Zawiya. (NYT)

MARCH 7: Rebels forces were pushed back from their advance to take Qaddafi’s hometown of Surt by ground and airstrikes. They retreated eastwards to Ras Lanuf, 27 miles away from their original position. (LAT)

MARCH 7: Libya’s rebel commanders have freed two MI6 officers and six SAS soldiers initially suspected of being hired mercenaries four days after they were detained by anti-regime forces.   The British government maintains that the group was sent in to make contact with rebel leadership. (The Guardian)

MARCH 6: Rebel forces in Misrata repelled an assault by pro-Qaddafi forces. One resident reported that rebel forces had captured 20 soldiers and one tank. He added “They came from three sides and managed to enter the town from the west and south but when they reached the center of Misrata the rebels pushed them back.” (Reuters).

MARCH 5: Rebels took the town of Bin Jawad, roughly 93 miles from Qaddafi’s hometown of Sirte. (BBC)

MARCH 5: The opposition Interim Transitional National Council held its first meeting in Benghazi. The council said in a statement that “it is the sole representative of all Libya with its different social and political strata and all its geographical sections.” Mustafa Abdeljeleel oversees the council and hosted representatives from Batnan, Darna, Qouba, Benghazi, and specific groups including political prisoners and youth and women. (Interim Transitional National Council)

MARCH 3: Thousands of untrained men have been traveling to recruiting centers eager to fight against Qaddafi’s forces. No organized military force has yet emerged from these masses, however former government troops who defected are being put to work training ordinary citizens and helping with the stockpiles of small arms and ammunition seized from armories and barracks. (LA Times)

MARCH 1: Reports indicate that rebel leaders in Benghazi are debating whether to ask for Western airstrikes under the United Nations banner. By invoking the UN to declare a no-fly zone, the rebels seek to draw a distinction between airstrikes and ground-based foreign intervention, a move they oppose. This discussion comes the day after government special forces retook a rebel-held oil refinery at Ras Lanuf. (New York Times)


FEBRUARY 28: Firmly controlled by the opposition, eastern Libya is moving towards forming its own interim government centered in Benghazi. Top leaders, however, have not released a coherent plan on who would lead the initiative. (Washington Post)

FEBRUARY 27: It is now estimated that opposition forces control territories containing some 80 percent of the country’s oil resources. In recognition of the rebels’ growing power, Italy’s foreign minister suspended a nonaggression treaty with Libya on the grounds that the Libyan state “no longer exists”. Secretary Clinton has also reached out to the rebels to “offer any kind of assistance.” (New York Times)

FEBRUARY 25: As anti-government forces take over the eastern part of Libya, concern is growing that extremists from the region could take advantage of the government’s disintegration to morph into a wider terrorist threat. (Wall Street Journal)

FEBRUARY 24: Sources indicate that citizens have been able to purchase automatic weapons from arms dealers on the Egyptian border. Private arms purchases have been distributed throughout the country. (New York Times)

FEBRUARY 24: Public affairs in Benghazi are being managed by a city management council. The council has overseen the consolidation of rockets, rocket-propelled grenades and other weapons seized by rebels from local military bases. (Washington Post)

FEBRUARY 24: Opponents of Col. Qaddafi’s regime reported that they had gained control of the city of Misrata, the closest city to Tripoli under rebel control. (Wall Street Journal)


FEBRUARY 24: The city Misrata has fallen under opposition control, but a unit of a paramilitary force controlled by one of Qaddafi’s sons has attacked near the city’s airport.   Additional reports indicate that there is no sign of central government control between the Egyptian border and Benghazi, a distance of 600km. (Reuters)

FEBRUARY 23: Military and police continue to defect to the opposition across eastern Libya. Top military officers such as Maj. Gen. Suleiman Mahmoud, commander of the Tobruk Garrison, have professed their loyalty to the opposition. (Washington Post)

FEBRUARY 23: Heavy gunfire against demonstrators has been reported throughout Tripoli the day after Libya’s Deputy Ambassador Ibrahim Dabbashi publicly turned against Qaddafi. (Washington Post)

FEBRUARY 23: Opposition forces have overtaken Misrata, Libya’s third largest city in the oil-rich area of western Libya long considered one of Qaddafi’s strongholds. As rebels advance, Qaddafi’s traditional backing from powerful tribal leaders is also unraveling, with the key Warfallah tribe announcing it is joining the movement to oust the regime. (LA Times)

FEBRUARY 21: Protestors in the heart of Tripoli were assaulted by Qaddafi’s forces. This move caused divisions in the army, and police in several cities defected to the opposition. A number of powerful tribal leaders also defected, and one tribe threatened to stop pumping oil if violence against protestors continued. (LA Times)

FEBRUARY 18: As many as 15,000 protestors gathered for a third day of violent demonstrations in Benghazi. Security forces withdrew from part of the city by the afternoon, which residents see as a sign of withering authority. Human rights groups say 24 people have been killed across the country, though activists say the count may be far higher. (New York Times)

FEBRUARY 17: Activists using social-networking sites have called for more protests against the Qaddafi regime . (Wall Street Journal)

FEBRUARY 17: Bloggers and social network users in Libya called attention to the anniversary of the 1987 execution of nine young Libyans who were convicted of plotting to kill Libyan and foreign officials and the anniversary of an event In 2006 when Libyan security forces fired on demonstrators outside the Italian consulate in Benghazi, killing more than ten. Protestors had gathered after an Italian minister was seen on TV in a t-shirt emblazoned with a caricature of the Prophet Mohammed. (Wall Street Journal)

FEBRUARY 16: Hundreds of protestors gathered in Benghazi outside a government office to demand the release of a human rights advocate. The demonstrators were armed with gasoline bombs and rocks. In the city of Zintan hundreds marched through the streets and set fire to security headquarters and a police station while additional anti-Qaddafi protests took place in Bayda. Demonstrations in both cities were objecting to recent arrests of human rights advocates. (New York Times)