Timeline: Operation Linda Nchi

Two Kenyan battalions with air and armored vehicle support were deployed to Somalia at the start of Operation Linda Nchi. Additional troops have entered the country since then. The Kenyan Navy increased patrols along the northern coastline.

Month One (16 October - 15 November)
Month Two (16 November - 15 December)
Month Three (16 December - 15 January)
Month Four (16 January - 15 February)
Month Five (16 February - 09 March)

AMISOM: African Union Mission in Somalia
IGAD: Intergovernmental Authority on Development
SNA: Somali National Army
TFG: Transitional Federal Government

 
16 OCTOBER 2011
  • A Kenyan battalion, with air and armored vehicle support, crossed the Somali border from Liboi, entering the town of Dhobley in Lower Jubba region. Residents reported that the troop columns were supported by four tanks, along with an estimated 40 armored vehicles, some of which towed artillery.[1]
  • Airstrikes targeted al Shabaab positions in the jungle surrounding the town of Qoqani, along the main road from Dhobley. Airstrikes also hit an al Shabaab base near the town of Afmadow. Kenyan officials have refused to confirm many of the air raids.[2]
  • Kenyan military helicopter crashed at 7:55 pm near Liboi’s primary school, killing five Kenyan military personnel.[3]
  • Kenyan Army units entered Somalia to create a 100 km buffer zone.[4]
 
17 OCTOBER 2011
  • Kenyan navy patrol boat hit by a rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) off the coast of Lamu. Three sailors were injured.[5]
  • A Kenyan battalion reached the Somali town of Elwaq in Gedo region.[6]
  • Kenyan forces established a forward-operating base (FOB) in Qoqani in Lower Jubba region. Forces had already secured Dhobley and Taabta.[7]
  • Airstrikes targeted al Shabaab positions surrounding Afmadow town in Lower Jubba region.[8]
 
18 OCTOBER 2011
  • Heavy rains in southern Somalia slowed further progress.[9]
  • Kenya and Somalia signed a security and military cooperation agreement in Mogadishu, which limits Kenyan operations to Lower Jubba region.[10]
  • Kenyan army spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir claimed that Kenyan airstrikes had killed 73 al Shabaab militants.[11]
  • A suicide car bomb exploded in Mogadishu near the Foreign Ministry during the visit of Kenyan Defense Minister Mohammed Yusuf Haji and Foreign Minister Moses Wetangula. Kenyan Foreign Minister Moses Wetangula said that the explosion occurred along the planned route to the airport, but that the delegation’s travel plans were changed last minute.[12]
 
19 OCTOBER 2011
  • Residents reported Kenyan tanks and SNA troops seen in Busar in Gedo region.[13]
  • The TFG-aligned Ras Kamboni brigade stationed in Cag Libaax, 12 km west of Qoqani.[14]
  • Kenyan troops reported to be within 5 km of Afmadow, where al Shabaab had set up a defensive position. Kenyan airstrikes against al Shabaab positions near Afmadow continued. Kenyan officials credited Western satellites with providing intelligence on al Shabaab’s positions.[15]
  • A remote-control roadside bomb exploded in Mogadishu near the seaport.[16]
  • The Kenyan Cabinet unanimously voted for Kenyan troops to secure and remain in Kismayo until the TFG or AMISOM assumes control of the port city.[17]
 
20 OCTOBER 2011
  • Kenyan airstrikes targeted al Shabaab’s positions in the town of Ras Kamboni in Lower Jubba region.[18]
  • The TFG-aligned Ras Kamboni brigade and Kenyan troops captured the town of Ras Kamboni. Three hundred Ras Kamboni fighters entered the town, forcing al Shabaab to flee.[19]
  • TFG-aligned troops, SNA forces, and Ras Kamboni brigade headed toward Afmadow in Lower Jubba region.[20]
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir stated Kenya’s intention of clearing Kismayo of al Shabaab militants and pirates.[21]
  • SNA and AMISOM troops launch an offensive in Mogadishu to secure Daynile district.[22]
 
21 OCTOBER 2011
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that Kenyan forces had secured Oddo and Kolbio towns along the border. A company of Kenyan troops advanced from Oddo to Burgavo town and another from Kolbio to Badhadhe town. A third company advanced on Hayo town.[23]
  • Kenyan security official reported that al Shabaab militants ambushed Kenyan soldiers near Afmadow, killing two and injuring four others.[24]
  • Kenyan troops deployed to Kiunga in northeast Kenya for a possible offensive along the southern coastline. Kenyan residents reported that armored vehicles and trucks departed four military camps in Isiolo in northern Kenya bound for the Somali border. The trucks were carrying weaponry, food supplies, and tents.[25]
  • Kenyan Navy ships have reportedly established bases in the Bajuni Islands off the coast of southern Somalia.[26]
  • IGAD issued a communiqué in support of Operation Linda Nchi.[27]
 
22 OCTOBER 2011
  • Kenyan airstrikes targeted an al Shabaab command center in Munarani, about 10 km from Oddo town.[28]
  • SNA commander General Yusef Hussen Dhumal reported that troops were stationed in Taabta and Hayo town.[29]
  
23 OCTOBER 2011
  • Airstrikes continued to target al Shabaab positions in Kismayo, including Congo military base.[30]
  
24 OCTOBER 2011
  • SNA soldiers, backed by Kenyan troops, took control of Busar in Gedo region.[31]
  • French military spokesman Colonel Thierry Burkhard pledged limited French support for the Kenyan operation. France will assist in transporting supplies to Kenyan troops in northern Kenya. The U.S. Ambassador to Kenya, Scott Grattion, denied any U.S. military operations outside of the Kenyan border and noted that the U.S. will continue with overt technical support to the Kenyan military. TFG President Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed spoke in Mogadishu questioning Kenya’s offensive against al Shabaab.[32]
  
25 OCTOBER 2011
  • Gunmen abducted two foreign aid workers, an American and a Dane in Galkayo in Mudug region.[33]
  
26 OCTOBER 2011
  • The TFG issued a statement clarifying its position on Kenya’s operation and underscoring its support for “coordinated security and military operations spearheaded by TFG soldiers trained by Kenyan government.” Ahlu Sunna wa al Jama’a issued a statement of support for the Kenyan operation against al Shabaab.[34]
  
27 OCTOBER 2011
  • An estimated 45 al Shabaab militants ambushed Kenyan soldiers along the road between Taabta and Qoqani at 11:30am. Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that nine al Shabaab fighters were killed and two Kenyan soldiers were injured. One of the soldiers later died of his injuries.[35]
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that Kenyan airstrikes targeted an al Shabaab training camp in Anoole in Lower Jubba region. Chirchir confirmed that Busar in Gedo region was under Kenyan control and that Kenyan troops were advancing on Burahache.[36]
  • Suspected al Shabaab militants attacked a vehicle in Lafey in Mandera in Kenya, killing two Ministry of Education officials.[37]
  
28 OCTOBER 2011
  • A vehicle in a convoy on route to Liboi town on the Somali border hit a roadside bomb 7 km from Garissa town in Kenya. The vehicle was carrying members of Kenya’s paramilitary General Services Unit (GSU). Three people were injured.[38]
  • Kenyan soldiers and allied Somali fighters conducted door-to-door searches for al Shabaab militants in Burgavo. Residents reported that the troops entered the town from two different directions.[39]
  
29 OCTOBER 2011
  • The Kenyan government extended amnesty to Kenyan members of al Shabaab, asking those who have been recruited to denounce the group and surrender to the authorities.[40]
  
30 OCTOBER 2011
  • The Kenyan Air Force targeted al Shabaab positions in Jilib in Lower Jubba region. Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir claimed that the airstrikes killed ten al Shabaab militants and injured 47 others. Residents reported that the airstrikes also hit a nearby internally displaced persons (IDP) camp. Five civilians were killed and over 45 others injured. Al Shabaab issued a statement detailing the visit of its regional governor, Sheikh Abu Bakr Ali Adam, to Mariri Hospital where injured civilians were receiving treatment. Adam reportedly gave money to the families.[41]
  • Ras Kamboni brigade spokesman Mohammud Farah reported that Ras Kamboni fighters on patrol had seized a 4x4 vehicle headed toward the Kenyan border that was carrying explosives and four al Shabaab militants.[42]
  • Al Shabaab militants evacuated areas surrounding the airstrip in Baidoa, the capital of Bay region. Militants also patrolled along the main road.[43]
  
31 OCTOBER 2011
  • Kenya and Somalia jointly called for international assistance in the blockade of Kismayo.[44]
  
01 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir warned of airstrikes in Baidoa, Bardhere, Dinsor, Afgoi, Bu’aale, Barawe, Jilib, Kismayo, and Afmadow. He said that the air force would target any al Shabaab camp that receives weapons from two shipments being tracked by Kenya. The Kenyan government issued a statement saying that two planes had landed in Baidoa in Bay region with weapons for al Shabaab.[45]
  • Al Shabaab militants ambushed a Kenyan convoy injuring three soldiers. Al Shabaab’s military spokesman Sheikh Abdi Aziz Abu Mus’ab reported that al Shabaab militants had killed ten Kenyan soldiers. A subsequent al Shabaab statement claimed that its fighters ambushed a Kenyan convoy near the village of Qandis, about 35 km from Dhobley, and that three military vehicles hit by rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs). A Somali military spokesman reported that a counter-attack killed 36 al Shabaab militants.[46]
  • Ethiopian forces crossed into Somalia’s Galgudud region and were reported to have entered the villages of Qeydar and Marodile in Guriel and Banbal districts before leaving.[47]
  
02 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Witnesses reported columns of armored vehicles headed toward the Somali border from Garissa. A Kenyan military source said that one convoy would enter Somalia at Liboi and the second would cross through the Kenyan town of Hulugho and Somali town of Kolbio to join forces with the Ras Kamboni brigade in southern Somalia.[48]
  • The government of Eritrea denied media reports that it had flown weapons into Somalia destined for al Shabaab. The Eritrean foreign ministry said, “The government of Eritrea states categorically that these accusations are pure fabrications and outright lies as Eritrea has not sent any arms to Somalia. Tuesday’s baseless accusations are the latest product of a misinformation campaign orchestrated to undermine Eritrea and frustrate its constructive regional and international engagement.” Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that a third planeload of weapons landed in Baidoa, the capital of Bay region.[49]
  • The Kenyan Navy sunk a skiff off the coast of Somalia allegedly transporting fuel to al Shabaab militants in Kudha. Eighteen militants were killed, according to officials.[50]
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that al Shabaab is using donkeys to transport weapons and supplies, noting that the price of donkeys has risen from $150 to $200. He warned residents not to sell donkeys to militants and said that large movements of donkeys would be considered part of al Shabaab’s activity.[51]
  • TFG governor of Gedo region, Mohamed Abdi Kalil, reported that SNA troops fought with al Shabaab outside of Bardhere, killing ten militants. Kalil said that troops were advancing on Bardhere.[52]
  
03 NOVEMBER 2011
  • TFG military official Osman Sheikh Abdi reported that SNA troops, with Kenyan support, seized al Shabaab bases in Gedo region in the area between Elwaq, Beled Hawo, and Garbaharey. The bases were taken in Gadon-dawe, Khadijo-Hajji, al Adde, and El-Gudud.[53]
  • Al Shabaab militants in Gedo region attacked a house near Elwaq being used by a Kenyan official. The official was not present at the time of the attack.[54]
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir said in a statement, “All aircraft are hereby warned not to land in Baidoa. Anyone violating this will be doing so at their peril.” Al Shabaab issued a press release denouncing Kenyan accusations that the group is receiving weapons as propaganda geared toward justifying a Kenyan invasion.[55]
  • Al Shabaab has reportedly fortified its positions in Kismayo ahead of a Kenyan assault. Residents reported that al Shabaab has mounted weapons on the top of houses in the city.[56]
  
04 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Gunmen shot and killed the driver of a tourist vehicle and injured a Swiss tourist north of Isiolo in Shaba National Reserve in Kenya.[57]
  • The Kenyan Navy fired on a second boat that was “challenged to stop for identification but continued to approach the Kenya Navy at high speed.” Locals claim that those in the boat were fishermen.[58]
  
05 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that Kenyan forces had killed six al Shabaab militants in Burgavo who had tried to enter Kenya by boat. The militants fled along the coast and were eventually killed by ground forces.[59]
  • A police-escorted UN convoy hit a landmine in Dadaab refugee camp; the landmine did not detonate. Kenyan security forces fought with gunmen outside of Dadaab refugee camp.[60]
  • Two grenades were thrown at a church in Garissa in Kenya, killing two people and injuring five others. It is unclear who was responsible for the attack; Kenyan authorities have blamed al Shabaab.[61]
  
06 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Suspected al Shabaab militants attacked a border post in Damasa village in Lafey district in Mandera, killing a police reservist.[62]
  
07 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Kenyan police and SNA commanders reported that al Shabaab attacked a Kenyan police station near Elwaq. SNA Commander Mahmoud Ali Shire reported that two al Shabaab militants were killed.[63]
  • Gunmen attacked a vehicle carrying Kenyan Certificate of Primary Examination papers in Damajale near Liboi.[64]
  
08 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that Kenyan and Somali troops are conducting door-to-door searches for al Shabaab militants in Ras Kamboni, Munarani, Burgavo, Taabta, Qoqani, Dhobley, Busar, and Jilib. Chirchir added that a Kenyan objective is to secure areas for humanitarian operations in Somalia.[65]
  • Ahmed Madobe, the leader of the Ras Kamboni brigade, called for international aid agencies to begin humanitarian operations in newly secured areas of southern Somalia.[66]
  • An al Shabaab official in the port city of Marka in Lower Shabelle region told a crowd that al Shabaab’s “forces are ready to defeat any aggressor.” Militants displayed technicals and speedboats with mounted machine guns.[67]
  
09 NOVEMBER 2011
  • An estimated 30 al Shabaab militants attacked a Rural Border Patrol Unit of the Administration Police near Elwaq in Mandera district in Kenya.[68]
  
10 NOVEMBER 2011
  • A pro-al Shabaab website reported that the group had obtained radar equipment to detect the presence of aircraft. There has been no outside confirmation of this report.[69]
  
11 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Ras Kamboni fighters and SNA troops attacked an al Shabaab base about 7 kilometers (4 miles) from Afmadow. Four al Shabaab militants were reported to have been killed in the hour-long fight. Al Shabaab’s military spokesman Sheikh Abdul Aziz Abu Mus’ab reported that al Shabaab militants had killed three soldiers.[70]
  • Both al Shabaab and Ras Kamboni have claimed victory in recent clashes in southern Somalia. Al Shabaab’s military spokesman Sheikh Abdul Aziz Abu Mus’ab reported that it had killed ten Kenyan soldiers and burned six “battle wagons” and damaged three others in fighting between Qoqani and Taabta in Lower Jubba region. The spokesman for Ras Kamboni’s forces, Abdinasir Serar, claimed that al Shabaab suffered a high casualty rate and that al Shabaab killed three civilians in the course of the fighting.[71]
  
12 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that a Kenyan and Somali patrol in Elwaq in Gedo region discovered an al Shabaab camp. The ensuing firefight injured four Kenyan soldiers and killed nine al Shabaab militants, according to Chirchir. Additionally, Kenyan troops arrested four people for illegally possessing weapons.[72]
  • Kenyan Colonel Cyrus Oguna said that the weapons shipments to al Shabaab that were flown into Baidoa in Bay region consisted of shoulder-fired rockets, grenades, and small arms munitions. Oguna added that al Shabaab was now operating in cells of two-to-five militants, making it more difficult to target them. A Kenyan police spokesman said that 30 al Shabaab operatives sought amnesty in Kenya at the same briefing.[73]
  
13 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Residents reported that a large explosion occurred in Afgoi district in Lower Shabelle region. Accounts of the incident vary. A senior al Shabaab official reported that two missiles were fired from warships off the coast of Somalia. The al Shabaab official said that one missile struck a field near the Tadamun orphanage and the other hit waste ground near K50. Another explosion was reported in Lantabura in the K50 area. The TFG’s governor of Lower Shabelle region Abdikadir Nur Sidi reported that al Shabaab’s leader Abu Zubair, also known as Ahmed Godane, and a senior leader Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys were killed and others included American al Shabaab militant Omar Hammami, or Abu Mansour al Amriki. There has been no additional evidence supporting these claims. It is unclear who is responsible for the airstrikes, which have been confirmed by AMISOM. Kenya, France, and the U.S. have denied responsibility.[74]
  • An explosion was reported in Bulo-Burde in Hiraan region. Locals said that the explosion occurred at an al Shabaab military base. Local residents reported that al Shabaab militants were assembling an improvised explosive device.[75]
  • Al Shabaab militants ambushed a Kenyan convoy en route to Qoqani from Dhobley in Lower Jubba region. At least two people were killed and ten others injured in the fighting near Hawino village. Al Shabaab’s military spokesman Sheikh Abdul Aziz Abu Mus’ab claimed that militants destroyed some of the Kenyan vehicles.[76]
  • Israel responded positively to a Kenyan request for support for Operation Linda Nchi.[77]
  
14 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Ministers of defense and chiefs of staff of the Somali TFG, Burundi, Uganda, potential troop contributing countries, Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Kenya met in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to discuss security in Somalia.[78]
  
15 NOVEMBER 2011
  • A remote-controlled improvised explosive device detonated in Dadaab refugee camp, injuring two guards. The first vehicle of a police escort driving aid workers to their residences was hit. The blast occurred near where an improvised explosive device detonated earlier in the month.[79]
  • Al Shabaab’s spokesman Sheikh Ali Mohamed Rage warned, “We tell Kenya that things have not began in earnest yet and it is now a month on. You still have a chance to go back to your border.”[80]
  
16 NOVEMBER 2011
  • SNA troops attacked al Shabaab bases in Busar, about 40 km from Elwaq. Twenty-three people were killed in the fighting over two days. The fighting began the evening of November 15 and carried into a second day. A Kenyan soldier injured in the fighting died at a hospital in Garissa, Kenya.[81]
  • A high-level meeting between the presidents of Somalia, Kenya, and Uganda in Nairobi emphasized coordination between the military forces in Somalia to defeat al Shabaab. The three countries issued a joint communiqué that reaffirmed objectives outlined in previous communiqués. Kenya announced that it would be willing to deploy troops to AMISOM; however, it is unclear whether these troops would be in addition to Kenyan forces already inside Somalia.[82]
  
17 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Al Shabaab militants attacked Kenyan, Ras Kamboni, and SNA bases near Kolbio in Lower Jubba region. The ensuing fight killed at least four people and injured several others. Al Shabaab militants reportedly retreated from nearby positions around Kolbio and Badhadhe towns toward Afmadow.[83]
  • Kenyan troops established a forward position in Hayo, just outside of Afmadow.[84]
  • African Union officials reported that a proposal to deploy Ethiopian troops to Somalia to open up a new front against al Shabaab was under consideration. Ethiopian troops have a strong presence along the Somali border.[85]
  • The Kenyan government appealed through the U.S. Department of State for intelligence and logistical assistance to support its troops in Somalia.[86]
  
18 NOVEMBER 2011
  • An estimated 400 Kenyan troops, supported by helicopters and light aircraft, arrived at the Kenyan town of Liboi on the Somali border. A local Kenyan official reported that the troops would advance toward Afmadow.[87]
  • Somali Colonel Mohamed Abdullah reported that SNA troops took control of Jilabdo town, just outside of Afmadow, after fighting with al Shabaab. Three fighters were killed.[88]
  
19 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Residents reported that convoys of Ethiopian troops were seen at least 80 km inside the Somali border. An elder in Guriel town reported that there were about 28 trucks and armored vehicles. Residents in Mandera, near the Kenyan-Somali-Ethiopian border, reported that ten trucks and several armored vehicles had crossed into Somalia from Ethiopia. An unnamed Ethiopian official said, “There is a strong possibility that we will be sending troops to Somalia soon to support Kenya’s operation against the al Shabaab extremists.”[89]
  • Kenyan police arrested 60 suspected al Shabaab militants destined for Somalia. Kenyan Internal Security Permanent Secretary Francis Kimemia said that militants entered Kenya through Uganda. Kenyan Colonel Cyrus Oguna reported that eight Kenyan soldiers had died since the start of the operation and that one was missing.[90]
  
20 NOVEMBER 2011
  • A Kenyan military statement reported that the Kenyan Air Force “supported by naval fire, destroyed an Al Shabaab/Al Qaeda key training facility in Hola Wajeer/Lacta area in Badhadhe district, Lower Jubba. This infrastructure accommodates foreign fighters, most of them trainers of al Shabaab fighters.”[91]
  • Al Shabaab militants engaged the Kenyan Navy. A Somali government official reported that the Kenyan forces had hit one al Shabaab boat. Al Shabaab released a statement claiming that two divisions of its “Mujahideen Naval Forces” attacked Kenyan military ships patrolling the coastline. According to al Shabaab, the attack occurred between Kudha and Madhawa, near Kismayo early in the morning.[92]
  • Al Shabaab militants ambushed a joint Kenyan-Somali convoy near Dhobley. A senior Somali military officer, Abdikarim Ali Yusuf, reported that four al Shabaab militants were killed and one was captured. Al Shabaab claimed to have destroyed two of six military vehicles and to have killed eight Kenyan troops.[93]
  • Kenyan police in Dadaab refugee camp reported the discovery of an unexploded bomb hidden along a road regularly used by aid workers.[94]
  • Al Shabaab’s military spokesman Sheikh Abdul Aziz Abu Mus’ab issued a statement following reports that Ethiopian troops had entered Somalia. He said, “We are glad to say Ethiopian troops are in the Guriel area – they have come because AMISOM and Kenya have failed in the fight against al Shabaab…. Al Shabaab and the Ethiopians know each other. We made them pull out with their dead bodies two years ago.” Al Shabaab’s Hiraan region commander, Sheikh Yusuf Ali Ugas, also threatened attacks against Ethiopian troops in Somalia.[95]
  
21 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Somali residents of Beledweyne and Elbur, which are near the Ethiopian border, reported that al Shabaab militants had deserted checkpoints and positions along the frontlines.[96]
  
22 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Airstrikes targeted al Shabaab positions in Gedo region. Residents of Yaqle, a village on the Kenyan border, reported that at least one civilian was killed in the strike. Residents also reported that Ethiopian troops had crossed through the Damasa border crossing, about 25 km away from Yaqle and that fighter jets had flown over the area shortly before the strike. A local al Shabaab commander, Sheikh Said Warsan, said from Bardhere in Gedo, “The blood of Somalis will not be left unaccounted for. Kenya and Ethiopia will answer.”[97]
  • Al Shabaab militants ambushed SNA troops between Hayo and Qoqani. Al Shabaab military spokesman Sheikh Abdul Aziz Abu Mus’ab reported that six soldiers were killed. A Somali soldier reported seven al Shabaab militants had been killed, compared to only one soldier.[98]
  
23 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that Kenyan fighter jets targeted al Shabaab bases near Badhadhe town in Lower Jubba region. The al Shabaab camps were named as Wamaitho and Kisima. Seven al Shabaab militants were killed and eight others injured. Al Shabaab reported that seven bombs were dropped, but that it had suffered no casualties.[99]
  • Al Shabaab militants ambushed a military convoy on Abdi Sugow Road, less than 10 km from Liboi, which is on the Kenyan-Somali border. One soldier was seriously injured.[100]
  • Kenyan security minister George Saitoti said that Kenya had no choice but to launch an offensive operation against al Shabaab because of the group’s extension into Kenya. “That in fact is one of the reasons why we have decided to move, because al Shabaab had decided to come in to Kenya to recruit the unemployed youth and turn them into terrorists,” he said. The African Union Envoy to Somalia Jerry Rawlings said that talks with al Shabaab should remain an option.[101]
  
24 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Kenyan and Somali troops attacked an al Shabaab base in Dalbes jungle, which is between Hawino and Taabta. A senior Somali military officer, Abdikarim Ali Yusuf, reported that helicopters “bombed the whole area” prior to the arrival of infantry forces. Abdinasir Serar, a spokesman for Ras Kamboni, said that fighters killed three al Shabaab militants.[102]
  • An attack on a restaurant and a shop in Garissa, Kenya killed three people and injured at least 27 others. Three explosions, suspected to be from grenades, occurred in Garissa, which is an important military base. Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that a roadside bomb near Mandera killed a Kenyan soldier and seriously injured four others on patrol. There were 13 soldiers onboard the military vehicle. Locals reported that 11 soldiers had been injured in the explosion near Bulla-Garaay.[103]
  
25 NOVEMBER 2011
  • The East African Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) met in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In recognition of the Kenyan offensive, IGAD called on Ethiopia to support the Kenyan, TFG, and AMISOM operation and condemned Eritrea for its support of al Shabaab. An Ethiopian military official confirmed that troops would be deployed inside of Somalia for a brief period to complement the Kenyan and TFG offensives against al Shabaab.[104]
  • Kenyan police arrested five suspected al Shabaab militants in Lamu, Kenya, following a tip from local residents. The suspects reportedly arrived on Manda Island by boat and were headed toward Bruno Hotel. Four others suspects were also arrested.[105]
  
26 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Suspected al Shabaab militants attacked Arabia, a Kenyan trading center near Mandera, and overran the local police station. Kenyan North Eastern Provincial police commander Leo Nyongesa reported that the militants took arms and ammunition from the police station and destroyed a communication booster.[106]
  • Al Shabaab issued a press release condemning the November 25 decision by IGAD to support Ethiopian participation in the offensive against al Shabaab in Somalia.  The statement read: “Know that you [Ethiopia] are entering Somalia while the corpses of your comrades are still fresh in their graves and that the path that you tread upon today is reminiscent of the path trodden upon by your fellow soldiers yesterday. . . . The people of Somalia shall never accept or live under the humiliation of occupation and the spirit of resistance shall not fade as long as a single invader remains alive on Somali soil.”[107]
  
27 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Somali residents reported that additional Ethiopian troops crossed the border into Somalia en route toward Guriel and Beledweyne.[108]
  • Al Shabaab militants in Afmadow in Lower Jubba region beheaded two youths convicted of spying for the TFG and Kenyan military. Specifically, the youths were accused of directing airstrikes in the Jubba regions.[109]
  
28 NOVEMBER 2011
  • Kenyan troops raided an al Shabaab base in Bibi area between Kismayo and Afmadow in Lower Jubba region. Additionally, the troops arrested four suspected al Shabaab militants.[110]
  
29 NOVEMBER 2011
  • An al Shabaab commander defected in Busar in Gedo region. He is being questioned by Kenyan officials seeking to gain insight into al Shabaab’s Somalia operations. Additionally, Kenyan troops intercepted a weapons shipment from Kismayo destined for Afmadow, capturing four tractors loaded with arms.[111]
  • Al Shabaab militants attacked Somali and Kenyan troops stationed in Dhamse village in Gedo region, according to local residents. At least four people were killed and ten others injured in the fight.[112]
  
01 DECEMBER 2011
  • Somali troops seized two vehicles carrying explosives along the road between Taabta and Dhobley in Lower Jubba region. Somali security officials reported that two suicide bombers were detained who sought to attack troops in the area. A TFG official said that five militants were arrested.[113]
  • Al Shabaab militants ambushed a convoy of SNA soldiers traveling toward Garbaharey town in Gedo region. The fighting occurred near Busar. At least four people were killed.[114]
  
02 DECEMBER 2011
  • Airstrikes targeted an al Shabaab base in al Adde village near Bardhere in Gedo region. Al Shabaab’s military spokesman Sheikh Abdul Aziz Abu Mus’ab said that the jets dropped six bombs, killing four civilians and injuring 35 others. The TFG governor of Gedo region, Mohamed Abdi Kalil, reported that nine al Shabaab militants were seriously injured in the airstrikes.[115]
  • Al Shabaab militants attacked SNA troops, backed by Ras Kamboni militiamen, in Hayo near Afmadow in Lower Jubba region.[116]
  • The African Union Peace and Security Council (PSC) endorsed the communiqué of the 19th Extra-Ordinary Session of the IGAD Assembly of Heads of State and Government, which called for Ethiopian support of the Kenyan-TFG-AMISOM offensive against al Shabaab. The PSC also reiterated its call for a no-fly zone over Somalia and a blockade of Kismayo, Harardhere, Marka, and Barawe to cut off al Shabaab’s arms supplies.[117]
  • The spokesman for Ahlu Sunna wa al Jama’a in Gedo region Sheikh Mohamed Hussein al Qadi said that al Shabaab militants in Gedo region had harmed civilians and looted their belongings after they were pushed back by Ahlu Sunna fighters from a positions near the Kenyan border.[118]
  • Kenyan defense minister Yusuf Haji said that Kenyan troops “were pushing al Shabaab away from our boundary and securing our border, and we will go as far as we will go.” Haji said, “We never stated at any time that Kenya was going to Kismayo.”[119]
  
03 DECEMBER 2011
  • Kenyan Colonel Cyrus Oguna reported that four Kenyan troops had been killed in action against al Shabaab in Somalia since the launch of Operation Linda Nchi.[120]
  • Heavy fighting occurred in Taabta village in Lower Jubba region. A TFG official reported that at least ten al Shabaab militants were killed and ten others injured, while only three SNA soldiers were injured. An al Shabaab official who identified himself as Abu Hamza on Radio al Andalus reported that al Shabaab militants had killed over ten Somali and Kenyan soldiers. Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that Kenyan troops did not participate in the fighting. He confirmed that 11 Somali troops had been killed.[121]
  
04 DECEMBER 2011
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir confirmed that Kenyan airstrikes targeted two al Shabaab bases south of Afmadow.[122]
  
05 DECEMBER 2011
  • An explosion at Ifo refugee camp in the Dadaab refugee complex killed a police officer and injured three others. The officers were part of a convoy escorting UN officials to the camp.[123]
  • Al Shabaab militants attacked a Kenyan Navy warship off the coast of Kudha. The militants’ ship was sunk, and five of them are believed to have been killed.[124]
  • The UN Security Council voted to institute a new round of sanctions against Eritrea. Thirteen votes were in favor; China and Russia abstained. Eritrea has provided political, financial, training, and logistical support to al Shabaab, according to a July 2011 UN monitoring report. Eritrea’s foreign minister said in a statement, “It has become evident to everyone at the Security Council, the sanctions were as a result of undisguised United States hostility towards Eritrea. . . . It has become evident to everyone at the Security Council, the sanctions were as a result of undisguised United States hostility towards Eritrea.”[125]
  
06 DECEMBER 2011
  • The Kenyan Cabinet approved a request from the African Union to deploy Kenyan forces under AMISOM. A statement read, “The Cabinet that met under the Chairmanship of President Mwai Kibaki at State House Nairobi also approved the re-hatting of the Kenya Defence Forces in Somalia to AMISOM, subject to approval by Parliament.”[126]
  • Kenyan police conducted a security operation in Dadaab refugee camp, arresting over 100 suspects.[127]
  • Al Shabaab militants announced that local traders in Burhakaba in Bay region would have 15 days to pay the organization $18,000. The money would reportedly go to fund al Shabaab’s efforts to fight TFG and Ethiopian troops.[128]
  
07 DECEMBER 2011
  • A Ras Kamboni official reported that two senior al Shabaab commanders were killed in fighting outside of Qoqani in Lower Jubba region. The official reported that 14 al Shabaab militants, along with commanders Dahir Abu Ayman and Mohamed Khadar Kafi, were killed. Al Shabaab’s Abu Zeyd al Munazir denied the death of the two commanders on a radio station in Kismayo.[129]
  • The Kenyan parliament voted unanimously to approve the deployment of Kenyan troops to AMISOM.[130]
  
08 DECEMBER 2011
  • Airstrikes hit Bardhere in Gedo region, killing at least one person. Residents reported the strikes destroyed a compound that al Shabaab militants had been using as a training base. Kenyan Colonel Cyrus Oguna reported the compound was an ammunitions depot. Al Shabaab’s military spokesman Sheikh Abdul Aziz Abu Mus’ab reported that the aircraft dropped two bombs, but that no al Shabaab militants were in the area. TFG military officials reported that the airstrikes killed 60 al Shabaab militants. Residents of Baidoa, the capital of Bay region, reported that 35 al Shabaab militants were taken to the local hospital after they had been injured in the airstrikes.[131]
  
09 DECEMBER 2011
  • Witnesses reported that a Somali military vehicle traveling between Taabta and Dhobley hit a roadside bomb. Eight Somali soldiers were reported killed in the blast. Al Shabaab initially reported that the blast killed five TFG militia forces and a Kenyan soldier.[132]
  
10 DECEMBER 2011
  • An airstrike hit a Somali Red Crescent Society feeding center in Bardhere in Gedo region, killing at least one civilian. Al Shabaab militants have closed off the area, according to residents.[133]
  
10 DECEMBER 2011
  • An airstrike hit a Somali Red Crescent Society feeding center in Bardhere in Gedo region, killing at least one civilian. Al Shabaab militants have closed off the area, according to residents.[133]

 

11 DECEMBER 2011
  • Two bombings targeted Kenyan security forces in north Kenya. The first, a remote-controlled explosive device, exploded near Mandera Border Point Three at a place where police officers frequently rest near the Somali border. A policeman was killed and at least three others were injured. The second, a roadside bomb, detonated when a military convoy passed nearby in Wajir, injuring at least nine soldiers.[134]
  
12 DECEMBER 2011
  • A bomb exploded outside a stadium in Wajir in north Kenya. The blast hit government vehicles leaving after a parade celebrating 48 years of Kenyan independence from British rule. The district intelligence chief, his driver, and four civilians were injured.[135]
  
13 DECEMBER 2011
  • Locals reported that heavy fighting occurred between Somali troops, backed by Kenyan forces, and al Shabaab militants in Taabta in Lower Jubba region. Al Shabaab’s military spokesman Sheikh Abdul Aziz Abu Mus’ab warned that al Shabaab would continue to resist the “invaders.” He noted that “the joining of Kenyan infidels to AMISOM will not change the agenda of al Shabaab. We will fight against the infidels and force them to leave our country.”[136]
  • Kenyan Air Force helicopters destroyed al Shabaab military camps in Garbaguso and Usingo and at the Afmadow airstrip. Locals confirmed that at least two missiles targeted two bases near Afmadow, destroying the surrounding compounds.[137]
  • Kenyan army official Captain Thomas Mwanga reported that the target of Kenyan Operation Linda Nchi is “still Kismayo.” He added, “We will just pacify it and give it back to the Transitional Federal Government.”[138]
  • Kenyan sources reported that aid agencies, including Kokok, Islamic Relief, and UNICEF, have halted operations in Mandera in Kenya due to the deteriorating security situation.[139]
  
14 DECEMBER 2011
  • The Kenyan Air Force launched a preemptive attack on an al Shabaab militant camp in Wamaitho. Cyrus Oguna reported that the strike was conducted prior to al Shabaab launching an offensive against KDF and TFG troops in the area.[140]
  
15 DECEMBER 2011
  • Two grenade attacks injured four people in Garissa in north Kenya. The first attack targeted a local restaurant, known as the Florida Hotel, and the second targeted a local prison officers’ mess hall. Kenyan authorities believe that al Shabaab sympathizers are responsible for the attacks.[141]
  • According to Cyrus Oguna, Kenyan helicopters destroyed an al Shabaab camp in Bungavu in northern Somalia. Cyrus Oguna reported that over the last three days, the airstrikes conducted by KDF killed and wounded an unspecified number of al Shabaab militants. He also stated that some equipment and camps were “completely destroyed.”[142]
  
17 DECEMBER 2011
  • Cyrus Oguna said that the Kenyan army will continue to use air raids to target al Shabaab strongholds. He mentioned targeting the southern ports Marka and Barawe, and also targeting Afgoi, near Mogadishu.[143]
  • The Kenyan military announced that it is preparing to push forward in Burgavo, a strategic town approximately 60 miles from Kismayo, the insurgency’s primary stronghold. Kenyan troops have been stationed in Burgavo for nearly two months. Al Shabaab militants have fled to heavily wooded banks across the creek. Minimal random gunfire has been exchanged. Local residents stated that al Shabaab militants have began preparing for future clashes by digging trenches and tunnels.[144]
  
19 DECEMBER 2011
  • A senior Kenyan policeman reported that a police officer in Dadaab refugee camp was killed by a landmine attack on a patrol vehicle. Two other people were injured in the attack.[145]
  
20 DECEMBER 2011
  • A Kenyan district commissioner reported that a bomb exploded in Dadaab refugee camp. The explosion nearly hit a car carrying a senior police officer. No injuries were reported.[146]
  • The government of Denmark is providing support to Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) in its offensive against al Shabaab titled, “Operation Linda Nchi.” Danish Defense Minister, Nick Haekkerup announced that Denmark has provided Kenya with a repair facility worth U.S. $10 million. The purpose of the facility is to repair Kenyan naval vessels in order to better fight al Shabaab piracy.[147]
  
21 DECEMBER 2011
  • Clashes in Lower Jubba region near Afmadow, an al Shabaab stronghold, claimed the lives of one al Shabaab militant and one Kenyan soldier. The battle also resulted in at least 10 injuries. The attack coincides with a newly launched Kenyan offensive on Afmadow. Shabelle Media reported that rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) and machine guns were used by both sides.[148]
  • Two Kenyan fighter jets targeted al Shabaab militants in the southern Somali town of Hosingow. The Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) reported the deaths of 17 al Shabaab militants, including one alleged senior al Shabaab commander and one administrator. Local eyewitnesses reported the deaths of at least 10 people and at least 13 injuries. The eyewitness stated that most of the targets were civilians.[149]
  
22 DECEMBER 2011
  • Kenyan member of parliament Gitobu Imanyara reported that al Shabaab has dispatched agents to assassinate Kenya’s Defense Minister Mohammed Yusuf Haji and Deputy Speaker Farah Maalim.  Imanyara cited national intelligence reports during his statement. The assassination threats come amid an announcement by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) of humanitarian agencies withdrawing their staff from refugee camps in north Kenya, due to an increase in terrorist attacks.[150]
  
23 DECEMBER 2011
  • According to local witnesses, a suspected Kenyan airstrike outside of Kismayo, an al Shabaab-held port city in southern Somalia, reportedly killed at least 20 al Shabaab militants in the evening.[151]
  
25 DECEMBER 2011
  • Kenyan police arrested two men with suspected ties to al Shabaab after they hurled two grenades at a club in the northeast district of Wajir, Kenya. Wajir-East district commissioner Kennedy Nyaiyo stated that the attack wounded at least seven people, including an army officer and a policeman.[152]
  
26 DECEMBER 2011
  • Kenya Broadcasting Corporation reported that air raids carried out by Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) killed over 200 al Shabaab militants in Badhadhe in Gedo region in Somalia and Kolboi in north Kenya on December 24. The air raids were the result of intelligence reports that al Shabaab was on the verge of attacking Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and KDF troops.[153]
  
28 DECEMBER 2011
  • Eyewitnesses say that two Kenyan fighter jets bombed villages near Garbaharey in Gedo region in Somalia. An unspecified number of people died from the air raid. The strikes occurred between al Adde and Likolay villages in Gedo region.[154]
  • A Somali head of Community Peace and Security in Hagadera in Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya was killed by a gunman in his compound. The victim died as he was being evacuated to Nairobi, Kenya. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Antonio Guterres condemned the attack and expressed his “deep regrets” in a statement issued on December 30.[155]
  
30 DECEMBER 2011
  • Clashes between Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) and al Shabaab militants claim the lives of five militants and one Kenyan soldier. The fighting occurred in Qoqani, southwest of Afmadow, in Lower Jubba region in Somalia. Al Shabaab reported via Twitter that it had killed 11 KDF soldiers and had taken the offensive by ambushing a vehicle with an explosive.[156]
  • Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and KDF officials reported that they control most of the strategic areas in Gedo region in Somalia. TFG and KDF are carrying out operations as far as Bardhere, located more than 100 kilometers inside Somalia.[157]
  
01 JANUARY 2012
  • Kenyan police chief Leo Nyongesa confirmed that a Somali leader at Ifo in Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya was killed by a gunman in broad daylight. It is the second such incident in one week.[158]
  
03 JANUARY 2012
  • A landmine bomb in Mandera in northeast Kenya targeted Kenyan army vehicles. Three soldiers were wounded from the explosion.[159]
  
04 JANUARY 2012
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir confirmed that Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) and Somali government troops seized Farfadun, a town south of Bardhere in Gedo region. One Kenyan soldier was injured and three al Shabaab militants were killed. Chirchir also reported that a “key” al Shabaab leader in Gedo, Sheikh Hassan Hussein, was killed.[160]
  • Kenyan security forces reportedly detained hundreds of Somalis overnight in Mandera in northeast Kenya following a landmine explosion targeting Kenyan army vehicles on January 3.[161]
  
05 JANUARY 2012
  • Transitional Federal Government (TFG) spokesman for troops in the Gedo region Adam Ahmed Hirse said that his forces, backed by Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) are close to Bardhere, an al Shabaab stronghold, and are planning to seize the town soon. Eyewitnesses also reported that TFG and KDF troops are surrounding the al Shabaab-held town of Afmadow in Lower Jubba region. Local residents reported “mass displacements” for fear of an upcoming battle.[162]
  • Kenyan police seized explosive equipment in Ifo camp in Dadaab refugee camp near the Somali border. Kenyan police chief Leo Nyongesa said, “We have a breakthrough. Nine primers that are used to ignite hand grenades or explosives were recovered in today’s operation.” Two other women were arrested with the belief that they know who stored the equipment there.[163]
  • The African Union’s (AU) Peace and Security Council met on January 5 and is prepared to ask the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) to raise the number of AMISOM troops to 17,731. The new figure includes the absorption of Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) troops. In the same meeting, AU’s Peace and Security Council decided to replace Ethiopian troops with AMISOM troops in any newly seized areas, including Beledweyne in Hiraan region.[164]
  
06 JANUARY 2012
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that “KDF [Kenyan Defense Forces] jets pound Al Shabaab camp south of [Garbaharey], over 50 Al Shabaab killed…” He also reported that 60 al Shabaab militants were wounded in the strike and over 10 vehicles were destroyed.[165]
  • An eyewitness reported that a Kenyan airstrike on Kudha near Kismayo killed three al Shabaab militants and injured 10 others. The target of the air raid was reportedly al Shabaab boats.[166]
  • U.S. officials arrested former U.S. Army soldier Craig Baxam who is charged with trying to financially assist al Shabaab in Somalia. He was arrested in late December by Kenyan authorities while trying to cross the Kenyan-Somali border by bus. He converted to Islam while deployed to Korea. He faces up to 15 years in jail if convicted.[167]
  • Sheikh Ahmed Iman Ali, al Shabaab’s newly appointed leader in Kenya, was featured in a video released by al Shabaab’s media wing, al Kata’ib Foundation. Throughout the video, Ali urges Kenyans to participate in jihad either locally or in Somalia. He also encourages Muslims worldwide to sympathize with the Muslim ummah. He continues on by urging other Muslims that cannot travel to the land of jihad (such as Somalia, Afghanistan, Yemen, Algeria, or Iraq) then “raise your sword against the enemy that is closest to you.” Al Shabaab has appointed Sheikh Ahmed Iman Ali as its new leader and coordinator in Kenya. According to Ahmed Godane, one of al Shabaab’s top commanders in Somalia, Ali has been crucial in mobilizing Kenyan youth to participate in jihad in Somalia. Ali operates the Muslim Youth Center (MYC) near Nairobi in Majengo in Pumwani district. He allegedly commands a 200-500-strong force of mainly Kenyans recruited from MYC.[168]
  
07 JANUARY 2012
  • The British Foreign Office released a statement on January 7 warning Kenya of potential terror plots: “We believe that terrorists may be in the final stages of planning attacks. Attacks could be indiscriminate and target Kenyan institutions as well as places where expatriates and foreign travellers [sic] gather.”[169]
  • Local residents reported that Kenyan airstrikes on Garbaharey in Gedo region killed two civilians on January 7. Kudha district in Lower Jubba region was also allegedly targeted, but no casualties or injuries have been reported.[170]
  
09 JANUARY 2012
  • Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) launched an airstrike on Gadondhawe near Tulo Barwako village in Gedo region. Spokesman for the Somali government in Gedo region reported that 12 al Shabaab militants were killed in the air raid. Local residents also reported three KDF jets firing at least 10 missiles 40 km from Kismayo that killed five al Shabaab militants and injured others.[171]
  
10 JANUARY 2012
  • A Kenyan al Shabaab fighter was executed by al Shabaab in Kismayo for allegedly spying and leading Kenyan warplanes to al Shabaab targets in Jilib in Middle Shabelle region. Hundreds of locals reportedly witnessed the public execution. Reports state that he was one of three Kenyan rebel soldiers held by al Shabaab.[172]
  • Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) clashed with al Shabaab while travelling from Qoqani to Dhobley in Taabta village in Lower Jubba region. KDF Spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported six al Shabaab militants and one KDF soldier killed. He also reported two KDF soldier injuries. Al Shabaab claimed victory and reported seven KDF soldiers killed.[173]
  • According to local eyewitnesses, at least ten al Shabaab fighters were killed, and two of their main camps destroyed, in airstrikes near Hosingow Village, in Somalia’s southern Lower Jubba region.[174]
  
11 JANUARY 2012
  • Local residents and journalists reported that suspected al Shabaab militants killed three Kenyan police officers and five other civilians in Gerille camp in Wajir district in northeast Kenya. Kenyan police reported that an additional 14 police officers were missing following the attack. Other reports claimed that al Shabaab militants were seen driving three kidnapped Kenyans to Harag in Lower Jubba region in Somalia.[175]
  
12 JANUARY 2012
  • Human Rights Watch has accused the Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) and security forces of a series of human rights abuses, including beatings, arbitrary detentions, rape, and looting. A KDF spokesman announced that the military would look into these allegations.[176]
  • Local resident of Ifo camp in Dadaab Mohammed Hassan Mohammed reported that soldiers of the Kenyan army beat and burnt six Somali refugees to death who were travelling from Hargarder camp to Ifo camp in northeast Kenya. The incident occurred following a Human Rights Watch (HRW) report that accused Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) of abusing Somalis.[177]
  • Al Shabaab released a statement through al Kata’ib Media Foundation detailing the attack on Gerille camp in Wajir district in northeast Kenya. The statement reports seven Kenyan soldiers killed and the abduction of others.[178]
  
13 JANUARY 2012
  • Al Shabaab militants publicly displayed three Kenyan hostages in Bardhere district in Gedo, in southern Somalia. The Kenyans were kidnapped in an al Shabaab assault in Gerille, in northeast Kenya. According to an eyewitness: “They called all people to assemble and view the people that they had kidnapped in Kenya as well as the car [they had stolen], shouting ‘Allahu Akbar’…Hundreds of people gathered and they told the people first to be thankful and give praises to Allah, who granted the Mujahideen success in seizing the three Kenyans.” In an update to this story, it was reported that the hostages were then transferred to Baidoa, the capital of Bay region, where additional al Shabaab cars arrived with more hostages.[179]
  
14 JANUARY 2012
  • Kenya’s counter-terrorist branch arrested 29 Ugandans in Nairobi who are suspected of trying to join al Shabaab.[180]
  
15 JANUARY 2012
  • KDF confirmed an airstrike on Jilib and Bibi towns in southern Somalia targeting al Shabaab vehicles and command centers. Major Chirchir reported eight vehicles destroyed and an unspecified number of al Shabaab militants killed.[181]
  
16 JANUARY 2012
  • A local resident stated that nine al Shabaab militants were killed by a Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) air raid on Afmadow in southern Somalia on January 16.[182]
  
17 JANUARY 2012
  • Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported an airstrike on Tatar in Lower Jubba region on January 17. The airstrike killed six al Shabaab militants and disabled three vehicles.[183]
  • Four people were killed and seven wounded in combat between Kenyan Defense Forces (KDF) troops and al Shabaab in Somalia’s Gedo region. The combat was initiated by al Shabaab in an ambush attempt on a KDF convoy.[184]
  
18 JANUARY 2012
  • At least five people were killed in combat between Transitional Federal Government (TFG) forces, backed by Kenyan troops, and al Shabaab in Qoqani, in the Lower Jubba Region. The fighting began after an al Shabaab attack on a TFG military base in Qoqani.[185]
  • Al Shabaab identified the two Kenyan soldiers that were abducted on January 11 from Gerille on jihadist forums in an English statement. The names given were Mule Edward Yesse, a district officer, and Fredrick Irungu Wainaina, a registration clerk for the Kenyan Ministry of Immigration and Registration. No information on their current conditions or the demands for their release has been revealed. The third abducted Kenyan, driver Mohammed Deqh, was released by his al Shabaab captors and trekked over 70 kilometers back to Wajir district in northeast Kenya. He was unharmed and reported that he was treated well while in the hands of al Shabaab in his retelling of events to his superiors at the station.[186]
  
19 JANUARY 2012
  • KDF Airstrikes targeting Kismayo, an al Shabaab stronghold, in Lower Jubba killed at least 20 al Shabaab militants and doctors according to local witnesses. A civilian was also reportedly killed and another injured.[187]
  
21 JANUARY 2012
  • Kenyan military spokesman Colonel Cyrus Oguna announced a shift in KDF tactics against al Shabaab at a briefing at the Department of Defense headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. He said, “The target has been on logistics bases and command centres and [these] are critical in any operation and if you cripple a logistics base and command centre the war is halfway won.”[188]
  
22 JANUARY 2012
  • Kenyan army spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir confirmed that one Transitional Federal Government (TFG) soldier and two Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) soldiers were killed by al Shabaab militants in Hosingow and Delbio in southern Somalia. He also added that 11 al Shabaab militants were killed during the battles.[189]
 
29 JANUARY 2012
  • Kenyan police arrested Imam Abdi Rogo Mohammed after they found “a rifle, ammunition, two hand grenades, two pistols, and 102 bomb detonators.” A UN reported released last year states that Mohammed openly advocated al Shabaab.[190]
 
30 JANUARY 2012
  • Head of the UN Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS) Augustine Mahiga discussed African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) strategy against al Shabaab. Mahiga said that AMISOM will conduct its operations on the outskirts of Mogadishu on its way to Afgoi, where “al Shabaab has retreated and has its highest concentration of its troops.” He also reported that KDF’s primary mission is to capture Kismayo from al Shabaab and then continue north to the port city of Marka.[191]
 
01 FEBRUARY 2012
  • A local resident reported that al Shabaab militants clashed with TFG and KDF troops overnight in Dhobley in Lower Jubba region near the Kenyan border. TFG official Mohamed Dahir Farah stated that 10 militants and three Kenyan soldiers were killed.[192]
 
02 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) troops, along with Ras Kamboni brigades, seized the al Shabaab stronghold Badhadhe in Lower Jubba region. Ras Kamboni spokesman Abdinasir Serar reported that the town has been completely seized and that they are heading to other towns in the region, including Afmadow.[193]
  • Eyewitnesses reported a landmine blast targeting a Kenyan military vehicle carrying soldiers went off in Mandera, Kenya near the Somali border. An unidentified number of people were killed and injured. Over 20 suspects were reportedly arrested following the attack.[194]
 
03 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Colonel Cyrus Oguna stated that two Kenyan gunships launched an assault on an al Shabaab convoy in Dalayat village in southern Somalia, resulting in many deaths and injuries. Kenyan military spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir estimated that more than 100 militants were killed in the attack. The attack came after Kenya received intelligence that al Shabaab was planning an attack on troops in Badhadhe in Lower Jubba region.[195]
 
04 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Heavy clashes were also reported in Qoqani between al Shabaab militants and TFG troops backed by the Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) and Ras Kamboni brigades. At least eight people were killed and more than 10 injured. TFG officials confirmed the attack.[196]
 
06 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Al Shabaab launched an attack on Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and Kenyan troops in Qoqani in Lower Jubba region in southern Somalia using mortars and rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs). The attack resulted in an unspecified number of casualties and injuries.[197]
 
08 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Al Shabaab fighters ambushed a Kenyan Defense Forces (KDF) convoy in Garbaharey, a town in Gedo region in southern Somalia. The militant group reported that it had killed six Kenyan soldiers in the attack.[198]
  • At least ten people were killed in heavy fighting between al Shabaab and TFG, Kenyan troops, and Ras Kamboni brigades in Hosingow. Fighting broke out overnight when al Shabaab militants carried out hit-and-run attacks against allied bases.[199]
 
09 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Kenyan army spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir announced that the KDF, accompanied by TFG troops, had killed 13 al Shabaab fighters in Dalayat, a village in southern Somalia. Abu Yahya, al Shabaab’s senior commander in southern Somalia, is believed to be among the dead.[200]
 
10 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Kenya’s Muslim Youth Center (MYC) group, led by al Shabaab’s leader in Kenya Ahmad Imam Ali, stated that it, too, had joined “al Qaeda East Africa (AQEA),” in a message posted on MYC’s English-language blog. In a separate message posted on the blog, MYC denied that the TFG had retained control over Mogadishu, citing al Shabaab’s suicide bombing attack on February 8 as an example.[201]
 
12 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Al Shabaab militants attacked Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and Kenyan troops in Busar in Gedo region. Residents reported that heavy artillery was used. Ten people were killed in the clash.[202]
 
14 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Residents near Afmadow are fleeing from their homes due to ongoing fighting in the Lower Jubba region between Kenyan troops and al Shabaab militants. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) have reportedly also been heavily affected by the worsening violence.[203]
 
15 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Al Shabaab launched an attack against Kenyan and TFG posts in Qoqani in Lower Jubba overnight. Kenyan and TFG troops were able to repel the attack and seized three AK-47s, a sniper rifle, and communications equipment. Four al Shabaab militants and one Kenyan soldier were killed in the attack.[204]
 
16 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Al Shabaab released six communiqués on jihadist forums with details on recent attacks carried out between February 8 and February 10. The attacks targeted Kenyan forces in Gedo and Jubba regions, and TFG troops in Banadir region. The release also provided details on the Hotel Muna bombing, which al Shabaab claims killed 15 people and wounded 30 others. In a separate message, al Shabaab claimed to have helped five elderly and disabled individuals in Bay region.[205]
 
18 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Kenyan police spokesman Eric Kiraithe announced that at least 30 Kenyan civilians have been killed by al Shabaab militants since October 2011, when the Kenyan military entered Somalia.[206]
 
19 FEBRUARY 2012
  • The Kenyan air force carried out an airstrike against an al Shabaab stronghold in Bulo Haji in Lower Jubba. The number of militants dead or wounded has not been verified.[207]
  • Al Shabaab claimed responsibility for an attack on a police station in Garissa, in northeastern Kenya. At least one policeman and one civilian were reportedly killed, and two civilians wounded.[208]
 
20 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Al Shabaab’s media wing al Kata’ib Media Foundation released a statement on jihadist forums on February 20 providing details on the shelling of Kenyan forces in Taabta village. Following the shelling, al Shabaab reportedly engaged the Kenyan troops in a firefight which “caused large losses.”[209]
 
23 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Al Shabaab’s media wing al Kata’ib Media Foundation released a video showing Kenyan captive Mule Edward Yesse on jihadist forums. Yesse was abducted in an al Shabaab raid on a police station in Wajir district in Kenya on January 12. In the video, Yesse calls on the Kenyan government to cease military operations.[210]
 
24 FEBRUARY 2012
  • A Kenyan was allegedly among the militants killed in a suspected U.S. drone strike on a convoy 60 kilometers south of Mogadishu. Kenyan police spokesman Eric Kiraithe was aware that the militant was believed to hold documents indicating he was a Kenyan citizen. Kiraithe responded, “You are aware few Kenyans decided to go to Somalia to fight for the militant group. We will confirm his identity once further verification is done.”[211]
 
27 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Kenyan and Transitional Federal Government (TFG) troops clashed with al Shabaab militants in Kolbio near Badhadhe in Lower Jubba region. Al Shabaab reportedly attacked a convoy but failed to detonate a landmine. Al Shabaab claimed that seven TFG soldiers were killed in the attack.[212]
  • In a communiqué released by al Shabaab’s media wing al Kata’ib Media Foundation, al Shabaab reported it had destroyed two Kenyan army vehicles near Kolbio and Badhadhe with rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) and explosive devices on February 27. In addition, al Shabaab claimed that seven Kenyans died in the attack.[213]
 
28 FEBRUARY 2012
  • Gunmen opened fire on a checkpoint in Mandera, Kenya. One Kenyan soldier and one assailant were reportedly killed in the attack. It is not immediately known whether or not the gunmen were linked to al Shabaab.[214]
 
29 FEBRUARY 2012
  • The Kenyan Air Force carried out an airstrike on Burdhubo in Gedo region reportedly injuring 30 al Shabaab militants.[215]
 
07 MARCH 2012
  • Samantha Lewthwaite is believed to have fled Kenya for Somalia. She is the widow of Jermaine Lindsay, one of four suicide bombers who attacked London on July 7, 2005. She allegedly has connections with al Shabaab. Kenyan anti-terrorism police suspect Lewthwaite worked with Musa Hussein Abdi, a Kenyan al Shabaab member who was killed with Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, Africa’s top al Qaeda operative and suspected key planner of the embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998, on June 13, 2011. On December 20, 2011, Lewthwaite was briefly arrested in Abdi’s house but then released after she fooled officers with a South African passport wielding the name “Rachel Faye Webb.”[216]
 
08 MARCH 2012
  • Transitional Federal Government (TFG) troops backed by Ras Kamboni brigades and Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) soldiers clashed with al Shabaab militants in Hayo village in Lower Jubba region. A TFG military officer confirmed that four militants and one soldier were killed and another soldier was injured.[217]
  • Kenyan army spokesman Major Emmanuel Chirchir reported that Kenyan troops are ready to join African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) troops next week. Chirchir added that Kenyan troops killed six al Shabaab militants in an attack north of Afmadow. The KDF seized two AK-47s, four mortar rounds, 200 PKM (machine gun) rounds, and drugs and medicine.[218]

 

Jacob Schaffer contributed to the research behind this timeline.

 

[1] Abdi Guled, “Tanks and Jets: Kenyan Military Moves into Somalia,” AP, October 16, 2011. Available: http://newsone.com/world/associatedpress3/kenyan-army-invades-somalia
Peter Martell, “Kenyan Troops Enter Somalia as Rebels Warn of Defeat,” AFP, October 16, 2011. Available: http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jdzfJ1WyF228ap07WgVTZe533GrQ?docId=CNG.98d9e06e541009222caf4e8ecdcf07a9.4a1
[2] Peter Martell, “Kenyan Troops Enter Somalia as Rebels Warn of Defeat,” AFP, October 16, 2011. Available: http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jdzfJ1WyF228ap07WgVTZe533GrQ?docId=CNG.98d9e06e541009222caf4e8ecdcf07a9.4a1
Noor Ali, Mohamed Ahmed, and Sahra Abdi, “Kenya Deploys Troops in Somalia after Kidnappings,” Reuters, October 16, 2011. Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/16/us-kenya-security-idUSTRE79F2PS20111016
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[164] “Somalia: Ethiopian Troops ‘to Hand over to AU Force,’” BBC, January 6, 2012. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-16441240
[165] Tweets by Major Emmanuel Chirchir, January 6, 2012. Available: https://twitter.com/#!/MajorEChirchir/status/155304990901149696
[166] Aweys Cadde, “Airstrikes Continue in Southern Somalia,” Somalia Report, January 6, 2012. Available: http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2461/Airstrikes_Continue_in_Southern_Somalia
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Jay Bahadur, “Al-Shabaab Names Kenyan Leader,” Somalia Report, January 10, 2012. Available: http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2489/Al-Shabaab_Names_Kenyan_Leader_
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Tweets by Major Emmanuel Chirchir, January 10, 2010. Available: https://twitter.com/#!/MajorEChirchir/status/156730571823906816
Tweets by al Shabaab, January 10, 2012. Available: https://twitter.com/#!/HSMPress/status/156730737486348290
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[178] “Shabaab Claims Incursion into Kenya, Capturing Kenyan Officers,” SITE Intelligence Group, January 12, 2012. Available at SITE.
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[180] Galad Ali Ismail, “29 Ugandans Seeking to Join Al-Shabaab Arrested,” Somalia Report, January 14, 2012. Available: http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2536
[182] “Witness: Jets Kill ‘At Least 9’ in Somalia,” AP, January 17, 2012. Available: http://www.boston.com/news/world/africa/articles/2012/01/17/witness_jets_kill_at_least_9_in_somalia/
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Cyrus Ombati, “Abducted Kenyan Found in Wajir,” The Standard, January 19, 2012. Available: http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/InsidePage.php?id=2000050331&cid=4&ttl=Abducted%20Kenyan%20found%20in%20Wajir
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[188] John Ngirachu, “Kenya: KDF Halfway Through Somalia Operation,” Daily Nation, January 21, 2012. Available: http://allafrica.com/stories/201201230144.html
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[192] Mohamed Odowa, “Eight Killed in Overnight Attack in Lower Jubba,” Somalia Report, February 2, 2012. Available: http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2679
[193] “Kenyan Troops Seize a Key Town in Southwestern Somalia,” Shabelle Media Network, February 2, 2012. Available: http://shabelle.net/article.php?id=14995
[194] “Landmine Blast Strikes at Kenyan Truck in Madera Town,” Shabelle Media Network, February 2, 2012. Available: http://shabelle.net/article.php?id=14992
[195] “Kenya Says Hits Rebel Convoy with Helicopter Gunships,” Reuters, February 4, 2012. Available: http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/02/04/uk-kenya-somalia-idUKTRE8130CA20120204
[196] Aweys Cadde, “Fresh Fighting in Qoqani,” Somalia Report, February 5, 2012. Available: http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2708
[197] “Al-Shabab Attack with Shells on Southwestern Somalia Town,” Shabelle Media Network, February 6, 2012. Available: http://shabelle.net/article.php?id=15108
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Tweets by Major Emmanuel Chirchir, February 8, 2012. Available: http://twitter.com/#!/MajorEChirchir/status/167248146785771521
Tweets by Major Emmanuel Chirchir, February 8, 2012. Available: http://twitter.com/#!/MajorEChirchir/status/167248650781732865
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[203] “Mass Displacement Begins Near Kenyan Border Towns,” Shabelle Media Network, February 14, 2012. Available: http://www.shabelle.net/article.php?id=15340
[204] “Al-Shabab Attacks Kenya-TFG Forces Near Border Town,” Shabelle Media Network, February 17, 2012. Available: http://shabelle.net/article.php?id=15401
“Troops Kill Four Shabaab Militants, Says Military,” Daily Nation, February 17, 2012. Available: http://shabelle.net/article.php?id=15416
[205] “Shabaab Claims Attacks Against Kenyan, Somali Forces; Gives Charity,” SITE Intelligence Group, February 16, 2012. Available at SITE.
[206] Tom Odula, “Somalia Militant Group Kills 30 Kenyan Civilians,” AP, February 18, 2012. Available: http://articles.boston.com/2012-02-18/news/31075344_1_militant-group-shabab-kenyans
[207] “KDF Strikes Shabaab Base in Lower Juba,” Somalia Report, February 20, 2012. Available: http://somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2844/KDF_Strikes_Shabaab_Base_in_Lower_Juba
[208] Leila Aden, “Gunmen Attack Garissa Police Station,” Somalia Report, February 20, 2012. Available: http://somaliareport.com/index.php/post/2847/Gunmen_Attack_Garissa_Police_Station
[209] “Al-Katai’b Media Presents Four New Statements From Harakat al-Shabab al-Mujahidin,” Jihadology, February 20, 2012. Available: http://jihadology.net/2012/02/20/al-kataib-media-presents-four-new-statements-from-%E1%B8%A5arakat-al-shabab-al-mujahidin-3/
[210] “Shabaab Releases Video Plea from Kenyan Captive,” SITE Intelligence Group, February 23, 2012. Available at SITE.
[211] Cyrus Ombati, “Kenyan Killed in Somalia Shelling,” The Standard, February 27, 2012. Available: http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/InsidePage.php?id=2000052939&cid=4&ttl=Kenyan%20killed%20in%20Somalia%20shelling
[212] “Kenyan Forces Clash with Al-Shabab Militants in Somalia,” Shabelle Media Network, February 27, 2012. Available: http://www.shabelle.net/article.php?id=15718
[213] “Al Shabaab Claims Strikes in Banadir, Gedo, and Juba,” SITE Intelligence Group, February 29, 2012. Available at SITE.
[214] “2 Killed in Mander Attack against Kenya Army,” Shabelle Media Network, February 28, 2012. Available: http://shabelle.net/article.php?id=15751
[215] “30 Al-Shabab Militants Injured Air Strikes in Gedo Region, Official,” Shabelle Media Network, March 1, 2012. Available: http://www.shabelle.net/article.php?id=15792
Tweets by Major Emmanuel Chirchir, February 29, 2012. Available: https://twitter.com/#!/MajorEChirchir/status/174850788227682304
[216] “7/7 Bomber’s Widow Linked to Al-Qaeda Is Sought in Somalia,” Shabelle Media Network, March 7, 2012. Available: http://www.shabelle.net/article.php?id=15953
Boniface Ongeri, “Residents Recall Growing Up with Man Killed with Terrorist Fazul,” The Standard, March 7, 2012. Available: http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/print.php?id=2000037170&cid=159
[217] “Fighting in Lower Juba Claims Five,” Somalia Report, March 9, 2012. Available: http://somaliamediamonitoring.org/?p=1107
[218] Cyrus Ombati, “Kenyan Troops in Somalia to Join Amisom Next Week,” Standard, March 9, 2012. Available: http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/InsidePage.php?id=2000053711&cid=4&ttl=Kenyan%20troops%20in%20Somalia%20to%20join%20Amisom%20next%20week
Tweets by Major Emmanuel Chirchir, March 8, 2012. Available: https://twitter.com/#!/MajorEChirchir/status/177762940873744384
Tweets by Major Emmanuel Chirchir, March 8, 2012. Available: https://twitter.com/#!/MajorEChirchir/status/177763608460140544

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