Profile: Ahmed Abdi Godane (Mukhtar Abu Zubair)

November 14, 2011

This piece is part of a series of al Shabaab leadership profiles.

Ahmed Abdi Godane, also known as Mukhtar Abu Zubair, is a senior leader in al Shabaab, and the group’s statements identify him as the emir. Godane was one of the original founders of al Shabaab and has served as the group’s leader since an American airstrike killed al Shabaab’s last emir, Aden Hashi Ayro, in May 2008.[1] The United States Treasury Department Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) designated Godane as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist (SDGT) on November 20, 2008.[2] On April 12, 2010, the United Nations subjected him to sanctions pursuant to paragraph 8 of UN Security Council Resolution 1844.[3] The State Department authorized a reward of up to $7 million for information leading to his location on June 7, 2012.[4] OFAC, the U.S. State Department, and the United Nations use his alias Ahmed Abdi aw Mohamed in their respective listings.

Godane is from Hargeisa in Somaliland, and is a member of the Isaaq clan.[5] His clan’s territory is beyond the control of al Shabaab, which has left him without a strong clan base within the group.[6] Despite his open antagonism towards the clan system, he has historically favored members of his own clan, which has embittered other elements in al Shabaab.[7] Godane studied at a madrassa in Pakistan on a scholarship funded by wealthy Saudis, and returned to Somalia in 2001.[8] His ideological upbringing and theological beliefs place him as the central figure in al Shabaab’s takfir wing. A May 2010 International Crisis Group report also described him as uncharismatic and reclusive.[9] He makes the majority of his statements in recorded audio messages, which are distributed through online jihadist forums. According to unconfirmed reports from a Somali media outlet, Godane has a home in Sharjah, in the United Arab Emirates, where his wife and their children have lived since 2008. The reports also claimed he visited them twice in 2010, using a Kenyan passport with a different name to enter the country.[10]

Godane rejects nationalist goals and the clan system. He sees the group’s effort in Somalia as just one front in the global jihad led by al Qaeda.[11] In his first statement on June 2, 2008, as the head of al Shabaab, Godane pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden and praised other prominent al Qaeda operatives. He also vowed that his group would launch a direct attack against the United States.[12] Godane continues to reject dialogue or negotiations with what he calls the “apostate government,” arguing that the then-Transitional Federal Government (now the Somali Federal Government) must either surrender or face destruction. “We tell the Mujahadeen to not trust [negotiations], and they should know that it is the path which led those whom they are fighting today to apostasy,” he said in an audio message released on jihadist forums on July 6, 2009.[13] Godane publicly expressed solidarity with the Islamic State of Iraq, an al Qaeda franchise, following a joint American-Iraqi operation that killed two of the group’s leaders on April 18, 2010.[14] Several days after the July 11, 2010 bombings in Kampala, Uganda, that killed 74 people, Godane claimed responsibility for the attacks and warned that, “What happened in Kampala was just the beginning."[15]

Godane has a checkered relationship with other members of al Shabaab’s leadership. Godane has been at odds with Sheikh Mukhtar Robow over al Shabaab’s ideology and direction since 2008, and has thus worked to undermine Robow’s support within the organization.[16] Their feud reached a new level in October 2010, following al Shabaab’s failed Ramadan offensive. Robow pulled his troops from Mogadishu and threatened to form a splinter group over several grievances with Godane’s management of the offensive.[17] On July 12, 2011, a fresh row erupted between the two leaders, and Robow forced Godane to withdraw his troops from Baidoa.[18] Godane has also clashed with Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys. He met with Aweys on July 9, 2010 for unity talks, but the negotiations ended with no agreement.[19] Just before the merger, Godane ordered a series of attacks against towns held by Hizb al Islam.[20]His actions drew a sharp public rebuke from Fuad Mohamed Qalaf, also known as Shongole.[21] In September 2012, reports surfaced that Hizb al Islam officially broke away from al Shabaab because of “political and ideological differences,” but there is little known evidence to substantiate the group’s full operational independence from al Shabaab.[22]

Another prominent al Shabaab member, American Omar Hammami, released a video to online forums on January 9, 2013 attacking Godane’s leadership and accusing him of persecuting foreign fighters.[23] By April 2013, even long-time Godane supporter, Ibrahim al Afghani, denounced the group’s leader in a letter to Ayman al Zawahiri accusing Godane of poor command appointments and of mistreating foreign fighters.[24] Godane responded to these accusations with force. He reportedly ordered the killing of Hammami and other foreign jihadists on April 25.[25] Afghani, Robow and Aweys issued a fatwa telling Godane-supporters to cease hunting Hammami, whose death is still unconfirmed.[26]

The infighting reached a new level when two different al Shabaab factions fought each other in Barawe, Lower Shabelle region on June 19 and 20. Afghani was killed by pro-Godane forces, and Robow and Aweys were forced to flee Lower Shabelle region.[27] Aweys defected to the Somali government and there were reports on July 7, 2013 that Robow was also talking with Somali government officials.[28] As of writing, Godane has yet to comment on these developments.

June 20, 2013: Fighting erupted between forces loyal to Godane and those loyal to Aghani, Robow and Aweys in Barawe, Lower Shabelle region. Afghani was killed, and Robow and Aweys fled the city. (CNN)

June 17, 2013: A statement from al Shabaab’s central command, released on jihadist forums, reasserted Godane’s power and denounced other senior officials like Hammami, Afghani, and Aweys for speaking out against Godane. The statement also accused these dissenters of corruption, slander and trying to divide al Shabaab. (SITE)

May 18, 2013: Al Shabaab released a statement affirming support for Godane and disavowing Hammami, Afghani, and Aweys, whom the statement accuses of spreading lies. (SITE)

May 4, 2013: Godane continued to refuse to respond to criticism from senior al Shabaab officials; instead, he released a speech calling for al Shabaab militants to continue to attack Somali officials and foreign invaders. (SITE)

April 26, 2013: Omar Hammami tweeted a picture of a gunshot wound he received saying that Godane ordered al Shabaab militants to kill Hammami and several foreign fighters accompanying him. (SITE)

December 10, 2012: Godane praised what he said was progress made by Ansar al Sharia in Yemen (al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula’s insurgent arm) during a speech, and urged other Islamist fighters to continue their jihad until “the Mujahideen has irreversibly come to an end.” (SITE)

October 27, 2012: Godane released a speech on Eid al Adha praising recent jihadi victories in Syria, Libya, Egypt, Mali, Nigeria, Iraq and Afghanistan. He also lauded the progress made by al Shabaab fighters against AMISOM troops and specifically said the Kenyan decision to enter Somalia was a “historic mistake.” (SITE)

June 18, 2012: Godane vowed to continue jihad against the TFG and AMISOM until all of the Horn of Africa is under an Islamic government in an audio message. (Mareeg)

April 1, 2012: Disagreements between Godane and Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys became public. Godane had declared that no jihadist group, other than al Shabaab, should be established in Somalia. Aweys disagreed, saying, “One cannot limit or make jihad a membership, jihad is open to everyone who is willing to fight.” (Garowe Online)

March 20, 2012: Godane vowed that al Shabaab would continue to fight against AMISOM and urged jihadists to continue their fight, including in Puntland: “Mujahedeen fighters in areas controlled by the apostate Puntland government must remain unified, you must strengthen your battle fronts until you ensure the Islamic flag flies over the whole region." (AFP)

March 19, 2012: Godane delivered a speech on the London Conference on Somalia, which was held on February 23. He said that there were four goals of the conference: to strengthen the “Crusader alliance”; to divide the country by tribe, making it easier to destroy; to loot the country of its resources; and, finally, to fight against Islamic law and institute an “atheist constitution.” (SITE)

February 9, 2012: Ayman al Zawahiri, the leader of al Qaeda core, declared that al Shabaab had formally joined al Qaeda. In the video, Godane pledged allegiance to Zawahiri. (SITE)

October 22, 2011: Godane congratulated the Libyan rebels on killing former Libyan leader Muammar al Qadhafi in a recorded audio message. He added that Libyans should not allow another leader like Qadhafi to take power. (Shabelle Media Network)

August 30, 2011: Godane released an audio message criticizing al Shabaab fighters who had abandoned their cause following the group’s withdrawal from Mogadishu, and argued the move wasn’t a sign of weakness. “We didn't abandon the fighting and we aren't weak. We are now launching a new phase of fighting against you, which will prove to be your end,” he said. He also accused foreign aid groups of deception. “Aid agencies and some countries declared famine and pretend they want to help you. They do so for these reasons: for trade purposes, to convert you from your religion and to colonize you," he said. (Reuters)

May 18, 2011: Godane ordered the establishment of a new charitable organization, the al Shaheed (Martyrs) Foundation, to raise and educate the children of slain al Shabaab fighters. (SITE)

March 2, 2011: Godane released an audio message condemning the presence of Burundian troops in Somalia, and called on the Burundian people to demand their withdrawal. “This message is to inform the Burundians that their forces in Somalia don’t know the facts exist in this country. You know that many forces from the world and from Ethiopia have failed to do anything in Somalia and dragging of AU soldiers in Mogadishu is a clear sign for their failure.” He also warned them that countries have sent forces to Somalia in the past only to withdraw in failure. “Several countries around the world including the so called world super power [America] and Ethiopia, and they have left the country mourning, and their mission has ended in vain,” he said. (Shabelle Media Network, Somaliweyn)

January 28, 2011: Godane called on al Shabaab fighters to show restraint in regions under the group’s control so they do not turn people against Islam. (Shabelle Media Network)

July 15, 2010: Godane claimed responsibility for deadly twin bombings in Kampala, Uganda on behalf of al Shabaab. “Allah willing, we will take revenge for all who were martyred by AMISOM guns. What happened in Kampala is just the beginning and a prelude,” he said. (SITE)

June 24, 2010: Godane urged voters in Somaliland to oppose the semi-autonomous state’s elections and resist democracy, which he called un-Islamic. "The reality is that democracy is something Allah made unlawful, and someone else cannot make it lawful," he said. (Reuters)    

Breuk Bass updated this profile on August 19, 2013.

Jared Sorhaindo updated this profile on August 3, 2012.


[1] Chris Harnisch, “The Terror Threat from Somalia,” Critical Threats, February 12, 2010, p. 4. Available: http://www.criticalthreats.org/sites/default/files/pdf_upload/analysis/CTP_Terror_Threat_From_Somalia_Shabaab_Internationalization.pdf
Ted Dagne, “Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace,” Congressional Research Service, April 20, 2011. p. 6. Available: http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL33911_20110420.pdf
[2] “What You Need to Know About U.S. Sanctions,” U.S. Department of Treasury Office of Foreign Assets Control, January 20, 2011. p. 97. Available; http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Programs/Documents/terror.pdf In April 2010 an executive order concerning Somalia confirmed his SDGT status and provided additional aliases for Godane. See “Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in Property Are Blocked Pursuant to the Executive Order of April 12, 2010.” Available: http://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2010/04/20/2010-9009/additional-identifying-information-associated-with-persons-whose-property-and-interests-in-property#p-3
[3] “Security Council Committee on Somalia and Eritrea Issues List of Individuals Identified Pursuant to Paragraph 8 of Resolution 1844 (2008)” United Nations Security Council, April 12, 2010. Available: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2010/sc9904.doc.htm
[4] “Rewards for Justice - al-Shabaab Leaders Reward Offers,” U.S. Department of State Press Release, June 7, 2012. Available: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2012/06/191914.htm
[5] “What You Need to Know About U.S. Sanctions,” U.S. Department of Treasury Office of Foreign Assets Control, January 20, 2011. p. 97. Available; http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Programs/Documents/terror.pdf “Somalia’s Divided Islamists,” International Crisis Group, May 18, 2010. p. 9. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/africa/horn-of-africa/somalia/B74%20Somalias%20Divided%20Islamists.ashx
[6] “Al Shabaab Leaders Condemn Each Other Publicly,” Garowe Online, December 18, 2010. Available: http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia_Al_Shabaab_leaders_condemn_each_other_publicly.shtml
[7] Abdi Salaan Abdulle, “Al-Shabaab Inner Fighting Possible,” Sunatimes, September 30, 2010. Available: http://www.sunatimes.com/view.php?id=470
[8] Haile Mahdi, “Shabab Leaders are from Somaliland,” Hiraan Online, April 18, 2010. Available: http://www.hiiraan.com/op2/2010/apr/shabab_leaders_are_from_somaliland.aspx
[9] “Somalia’s Divided Islamists,” International Crisis Group, May 18, 2010. pp. 6-7. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/africa/horn-of-africa/somalia/B74%20Somalias%20Divided%20Islamists.ashx
[10] Dahir Alasow, “Somalia: Alqaeda’s Alshabab Leader Seen in United Arab Emirates,” Sunatimes, December 11, 2010. Available: http://www.sunatimes.com/view.php?id=629
[11] “Shabaab Leader Tells Somalis to Prepare for Islamic State,” SITE Intel Group, July 13, 2009. Available on SITE.
[12] “Emir of Shabaab Places Group within Global Jihad,” SITE Intel Group, June 2, 2008. Available on SITE.
[13] “Shabaab Leader Tells Somalis to Prepare for Islamic State,” SITE Intel Group, July 13, 2009. Available on SITE.
[14] “Leader of Shabaab Releases Audio in Support of Islamic State of Iraq,” SITE Intel Group, May 3, 2010. Available on SITE.
[15] Colin Freeman and Mike Pflanz, “’At your service, Osama’- the African Bin Laden behind the Uganda bombings,” The Telegraph, July 12, 2010. Available: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/somalia/7896329/At-your-service-Osama-the-African-Bin-Laden-behind-the-Uganda-bombings.html
[16] “Somalia’s Divided Islamists,” International Crisis Group, May 18, 2010. p. 6. Available: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/africa/horn-of-africa/somalia/B74%20Somalias%20Divided%20Islamists.ashx
[17] Herbert Ssempogo, “Al-Shabaab terrorists lose key sites,” New Vision, October 4, 2010. Available: http://www.newvision.co.ug/D/8/12/734067 “Secret Meeting Between Aweys, Abu-Mansor Over New Insurgent Group,” Garowe Online, October 6, 2010. Available: http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia_Secrets_meeting_between_Aweys_Abu-Mansor_over_new_insurgent_group.shtml
[18] Muhiima Mohamed, “Fresh row erupts between Islamists,” Suna Times, July 12, 2011. Available: http://www.sunatimes.com/view.php?id=1172
[19] “Somalia’s top Islamist leaders in unity talks,” AFP, July 10, 2010. Available: http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/AleqM5irS90-on69foc2Og6GR7484RocCA
[20] “Al Shabaab Takes Over Parts of Somalia From Hizb al Islam,” Shabelle Media Network, December 14, 2010. Available: http://www.shabelle.net/article.php?id=1015
[21] “Al Shabaab Leaders Condemn Each Other Publicly,” Garowe Online, December 18, 2010. Available: http://www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Somalia_27/Somalia_Al_Shabaab_leaders_condemn_each_other_publicly.shtml
[22] “Hizbul Islam’s Split from al Shabaab Further Isolates Militant Group,” Sabahi Online, September 27, 2012, Available: http://sabahionline.com/en_GB/articles/hoa/articles/features/2012/09/27/feature-01
[23] “Hammami Exposes Inner Workings of Shabaab, Details Conflict,” SITE Intel Group, January 9, 2013. Available at SITE.
[24] “Shabaab Official Speaks Out Against Leader, Appeals to Zawahiri for Help,” SITE Intel Group, April 6, 2013. Available at SITE.
[25] “American Jihadi in Somalia Tweets on Kill Attempt,” AP, April 26, 2013. Available: http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/A/AF_SOMALIA_WANTED_AMERICAN?SECTION=HOME&SITE=AP&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT
[26] “Officials in Shabaab Faction Give Fatwa Against Targeting Hammami,” SITE Intel Group, April 30, 2013. Available at SITE.
[27] “Top Somali Militant, Wanted by U.S., Killed in Infighting,” CNN, July 1, 2013. Available: http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/29/world/africa/somalia-militant-killed
[28] “Himan and Heb Held a Key al Shabaab Figure,” Bar Kulan. July 26, 2013. Available: http://www.bar-kulan.com/2013/06/26/himan-and-heb-held-a-key-al-shabaab-figure “Senior al Shabaab Leader Robow ‘In Talks’ With Government,” Sabahi Online, July 7, 2013. Available: http://sabahionline.com/en_GB/articles/hoa/articles/newsbriefs/2013/07/07/newsbrief-01