This piece is part of a series of al Shabaab leadership profiles.
Ahmed Abdi Godane, also known as Mukhtar Abu Zubair, is a senior leader in al Shabaab, and the group’s statements identify him as the emir. Godane was one of the original founders of al Shabaab. He had served as the group’s unquestioned head since an American airstrike killed the group’s last emir, Aden Hashi Ayro, in May 2008. The United States Treasury Department Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) designated him as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist (SDGT) on November 20, 2008. On April 12, 2010, the United Nations subjected him to sanctions pursuant to paragraph 8 of UN Security Council Resolution 1844. The State Department authorized a reward of up to $7 million for information leading to his location on June 7, 2012. OFAC, the U.S. State Department, and the United Nations use his alias Ahmed Abdi aw Mohamed in their respective listings.
Godane is from Hargeisa in Somaliland, and is a member of the Isaaq clan. His clan’s territory is beyond the control of al Shabaab, which has left him without a strong clan base within the group. Despite his open antagonism towards the clan system, he still favors members of his own clan, which has embittered other elements in al Shabaab. Godane studied at a madrasa in Pakistan on a scholarship funded by wealthy Saudis. His ideological upbringing and theological beliefs place him as the central figure in al Shabaab’s takfir wing. A May 2010 International Crisis Group report also described him as uncharismatic and reclusive. He makes the majority of his statements in recorded audio messages, which are distributed through online jihadist forums. According to unconfirmed reports from a Somali media outlet, Godane has a home in Sharjah, in the United Arab Emirates, where his wife and their children have lived since 2008. The reports also claimed he visited them twice in 2010, using a Kenyan passport with a different name to enter the country.
Godane rejects nationalist goals and the clan system. He sees the group’s effort in Somalia as just one front in the global jihad led by al Qaeda. In his first statement on June 2, 2008, as the head of al Shabaab, Godane pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden and praised other prominent al Qaeda operatives. He also vowed that his group would launch a direct attack against the United States. Godane publicly expressed solidarity with the Islamic State of Iraq, an al Qaeda franchise, following a joint American-Iraqi operation that killed two of the group’s leaders on April 18, 2010. Several days after the July 11, 2010 bombings in Kampala, Uganda that killed 74 people, Godane claimed responsibility for the attacks and warned that, “What happened in Kampala was just the beginning."
He has rejected any dialogue with what he calls the “apostate government,” arguing that the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) must either surrender or face destruction. “We tell the Mujahadeen to not trust [negotiations], and they should know that it is the path which led those whom they are fighting today to apostasy,” he said in an audio message released on jihadist forums on July 6, 2009. Godane also draws most of his support within al Shabaab from a large group of foreign fighters. His top adviser, Abu Suleiman al Banadiri, is a Somali of Yemeni descent. He manipulated his influence with al Shabaab’s foreign fighters to remove Sheikh Mukhtar Robow, also known as Abu Mansur, as the group’s head spokesman, following an effort by Robow to bargain with the TFG in April 2009.
Godane had a checkered relationship with other members of al Shabaab’s leadership. Godane has been at odds with Robow over al Shabaab’s ideology and direction since 2008, and has thus worked to undermine Robow’s support within the organization. Their feud reached a new level in October 2010, following al Shabaab’s failed Ramadan offensive. Robow pulled his troops from Mogadishu and threatened to form a splinter group over several grievances with Godane’s management of the offensive. On July 12, 2011, a fresh row erupted between the two leaders, and Robow forced Godane to withdraw his troops from Baidoa. Godane has also clashed with Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys. He met with Aweys on July 9, 2010 for unity talks, but the negotiations ended with no agreement. Just before the merger, Godane ordered a series of attacks against towns held by Hizb al Islam. His actions drew a sharp public rebuke from Fuad Mohamed Qalaf, also known as Shongole, who accused Godane of “hidden agendas.”
There have been reports that Ibrahim al Afghani replaced Godane as emir of al Shabaab; however, these have not been verified. In August 2011, some Somali sources reported that Godane replaced recently deceased al Qaeda in East Africa leader Fazul Abdullah Mohammed.
June 18, 2012: Godane vowed to continue jihad against the TFG and AMISOM until all of the Horn of Africa is under an Islamic government in an audio message. (Mareeg)
April 1, 2012: Disagreements between Godane and Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys became public. Godane had declared that no jihadist group, other than al Shabaab, should be established in Somalia. Aweys disagreed, saying, “One cannot limit or make jihad a membership, jihad is open to everyone who is willing to fight.” (Garowe Online)
March 20, 2012: Godane vowed that al Shabaab would continue to fight against AMISOM and urged jihadists to continue their fight, including in Puntland: “Mujahedeen fighters in areas controlled by the apostate Puntland government must remain unified, you must strengthen your battle fronts until you ensure the Islamic flag flies over the whole region." (AFP)
March 19, 2012: Godane delivered a speech on the London Conference on Somalia, which was held on February 23.He said that there were four goals of the conference: to strengthen the “Crusader alliance”; to divide the country by tribe, making it easier to destroy; to loot the country of its resources; and, finally, to fight against Islamic law and institute an “atheist constitution.” (SITE)
February 9, 2012: Ayman al Zawahiri, the leader of al Qaeda core, declared that al Shabaab had formally joined al Qaeda. In the video, Godane pledged allegiance to Zawahiri. (SITE)
October 22, 2011: Godane congratulated the Libyan rebels on killing former Libyan leader Muammar al Qadhafi in a recorded audio message. He added that Libyans should not allow another leader like Qadhafi to take power. (Shabelle Media Network)
August 30, 2011: Godane released an audio message criticizing al Shabaab fighters who had abandoned their cause following the group’s withdrawal from Mogadishu, and argued the move wasn’t a sign of weakness. “We didn't abandon the fighting and we aren't weak. We are now launching a new phase of fighting against you, which will prove to be your end,” he said. He also accused foreign aid groups of deception. “Aid agencies and some countries declared famine and pretend they want to help you. They do so for these reasons: for trade purposes, to convert you from your religion and to colonize you," he said. (Reuters)
May 18, 2011: Godane ordered the establishment of a new charitable organization, the al Shaheed (Martyrs) Foundation, to raise and educate the children of slain al Shabaab fighters. (SITE)
March 2, 2011: Godane released an audio message condemning the presence of Burundian troops in Somalia, and called on the Burundian people to demand their withdrawal. “This message is to inform the Burundians that their forces in Somalia don’t know the facts exist in this country. You know that many forces from the world and from Ethiopia have failed to do anything in Somalia and dragging of AU soldiers in Mogadishu is a clear sign for their failure.” He also warned them that countries have sent forces to Somalia in the past only to withdraw in failure. “Several countries around the world including the so called world super power [America] and Ethiopia, and they have left the country mourning, and their mission has ended in vain,” he said. (Shabelle Media Network, Somaliweyn)
January 28, 2011: Godane called on al Shabaab fighters to show restraint in regions under the group’s control so they do not turn people against Islam. (Shabelle Media Network)
July 15, 2010: Godane claimed responsibility for deadly twin bombings in Kampala, Uganda on behalf of al Shabaab. “Allah willing, we will take revenge for all who were martyred by AMISOM guns. What happened in Kampala is just the beginning and a prelude,” he said. (SITE)
June 24, 2010: Godane urged voters in Somaliland to oppose the semi-autonomous state’s elections and resist democracy, which he called un-Islamic. "The reality is that democracy is something Allah made unlawful, and someone else cannot make it lawful," he said. (Reuters)
Jared Sorhaindo contributed to the research behind this profile.