Order of Battle: Pakistani Military in FATA and Northwest Frontier Province

Pakistan army soldier (available at Wikimedia Commons)

Following is an order of battle for the Pakistani military, or a chart showing the command structure, unit responsibilities, and unit locations for different segments of the military. This document only lists officers, units, and bases which could be confirmed using open source material and as such does not represent an exhaustive list.

 

Forces deployed in current conflict in NWFP and FATA, see below for detailed order of battle:
  • 37th Mechanized Infantry Division, I Corps – Swat (based out of Gujranwala)
  • 19th Infantry Division, X Corps – northern Swat (based out of Jhelum)
  • 7th Infantry Division, XI Corps – North Waziristan (based out of Mardan)
  • 9th Infantry Division, XI Corps – South Waziristan (based out of Kohat)
  •  All Frontier Corps and Frontier Constabulary units in NWFP, FATA and Baluchistan, based in theaters of operations.

 

Forces under Army command:

GHQ[1] – Rawalpindi[2] (Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani)

Strategic Forces Command[3] – Rawalpindi (Lt. Gen. Syed Absar Hussain[4])

2nd Missile Group – Sargodha

Missile Group – Hyderabad

I Corps[5] – Mangla (Lt. Gen. Nadeem Ahmed[6])

6th Armored Division – Kharian (Maj. Gen. Tahir Habib Siddiqui[7])

17th Mechanized Infantry Division[8] – Kharian (Maj. Gen. Nasser Khan Janjua[9])

37th Mechanized Infantry Division – Gujranwala (Maj. Gen. Ashfaq Nadeem[10]); Operating in Swat after taking over 17th Mechanized Infantry Division responsibilities[11]

II Corps[12] – Multan (Lt. Gen. Sikandar Afzal[13])

1st Armored Division – Multan

14th Infantry Division[14] – Okara (Maj. Gen. Mohammad Ijaz Chaudhry[15])

40th Infantry Division – Okara

IV Corps[16] – Lahore (Lt. Gen. Ijaz Ahmed Bakhshi[17]); Responsible for the area of Punjab province opposite Amritsar in India[18]

10th Infantry Division – Lahore (Maj. Gen. Shafqaat Ahmed[19])

11th Infantry Division – Lahore (Maj. Gen. Raheel Sharif[20])

3rd Independent Armored Brigade[21] – Lahore

212th Independent Infantry Brigade – Lahore (Brig. Syed Amjad Shabbir[22])

V Corps[23] – Karachi (Lt. Gen. Shahid Iqbal[24]); Responsible for eastern and southern Sindh province[25]

16th Infantry Division – Hyderabad

18th Infantry Division – Hyderabad (Maj. Gen. Shahid Ahmad Hashmat[26])

X Corps[27] – Rawalpindi (Lt. Gen. Tahir Mahmood[28]); Responsible for northern Pakistan and Pakistan-administered Kashmir[29]

Force Command Northern Areas (FCNA)[30] – Gilgit (Maj. Gen. Muzammil Hussain[31])

12th Infantry Division – Murree (Maj. Gen. Maqsood Ahmed[32])

19th Infantry Division – Jhelum (Maj. Gen. Sajjad Ghani[33]); Operating in northern Swat[34]

23rd Infantry Division[35] – Gujrat (Maj. Gen. Khadim Hussain[36])

111st Independent Infantry Brigade – Rawalpindi; Responsible for local security in the event of an emergency[37]

XI Corps – Peshawar[38] (Lt. Gen. Mohammad Masood Aslam[39]); Responsible for NWFP, Baluchistan, Afghan border, and, previously, reinforcement of eastern formations along border with India[40]

7th Infantry Division – Mardan (Maj. Gen. Naweed Zaman[41]); Involved in operations in North Waziristan[42]

9th Infantry Division – Kohat (Maj. Gen. Khalid Rabbani[43]); Involved in operations in South Waziristan[44]

XII Corps – Quetta (Lt. Gen. Khalid Shamim Wyane[45]); Responsible for western Sindh, the Afghan border, and reinforcement of eastern formations[46]

33rd Infantry Division – Quetta (Maj. Gen. Tariq Rasheed Khan[47])

41st Infantry Division – Quetta

XXX Corps[48] – Gujranwala (Lt. Gen. Nadeem Taj[49]); Responsible for the eastern front, south of the IV Corps boundary[50]

8th Infantry Division – Sialkot

15th Infantry Division – Sialkot

54th Independent Infantry Brigade[51] – Sialkot

XXXI Corps[52] – Bahawalpur (Lt. Gen. Muhammad Yousaf[53]);

14th Infantry Division[54] – Pano Aqil (Maj. Gen. Mohammad Nawaz[55])

35th Infantry Division – Bahawalpur

105th Independent Brigade Group

Army Aviation Corps[56] – Rawalpindi[57] (Maj. Gen. Tanveer Ullah Khan[58])

1st Squadron – Dhamial

2nd Squadron – Lahore

3rd (Composite) Squadron – Multan

4th Squadron – Quetta

5th Squadron – Dhamial

6th Squadron – Dhamial

Emergency Relief Cell – Dhamial

7th (Composite) Squadron – Faisal

8th Squadron – Dhamial

Detachment 8th Squadron – Skardu

9th (Composite) Squadron – Peshawar

13th Squadron – Dhamial

21st Squadron – Multan

24th Squadron – Multan

25th Squadron – Dhamial

Detachment – Gilgit

31st Squadron – Multan

32nd Squadron – Multan

Special Services Group (SSG)[59] – Cherat[60] (Maj. Gen. Muhammad Haroon Aslam[61])

Division Troops[62]

                Akbar Company (Combat Diver Unit)

                Iqbal Company (Communications Unit)

                Zarrar Company (Counter-Terrorism)

1st Brigade[63]

1st Commando Battalion

Ayub Company

Liaqat Company
Kamal Company
Mitha Company

2nd Commando Battalion

Ghazi Company
Tipu Company
Quaid Company
Bilal Company

4th Commando Battalion

Shaheen Company
Jungju Company
Yaqub Company
Yusuf Company

                2nd Brigade

3rd Commando Battalion

Hamza Company
Ibrahim Company
Zakria Company
Easa Company

Maritime Security Agency[64] – (Rear Adm. Tahseenullah Khan[65]); Responsible for regulating and protecting maritime interests[66]

 

Paramilitary Forces:[67]

Frontier Corps (FC)[68]

FC in NWFP[69] Peshawar[70] (Maj. Gen. Tariq Khan[71]); Responsible for the Afghan border and the FATA[72]

Bajaur Scouts – Khar, Bajaur Agency[73] (Col. Nauman Saeed[74])

Chitral Scouts[75] – (Col. Suhail Iqbal[76])

Dir Scouts[77] – Balambat, Dir Agency[78]

Khushal (Khan) Scouts[79]

Khyber Rifles – Landi Kotal, Khyber Agency[80] (Col. Qaiser Alam[81])

Kurram Militia – (Col. Qazi Riaz[82])

Mahsud Scouts[83] – (Col. Mujahid Hussain[84])

Mohmand Rifles – (Col. Saif Ullah[85])

Orakzai Scouts[86]

Shawal Rifles[87]

South Waziristan Scouts – Wana, South Waziristan Agency[88]

Bases:

Jandola[89]

Manzai[90]

Sararogha[91]

Seplatoi[92]

Serwakai[93]

Tanai[94]

Tiarza[95]

Zalai[96]

Zam Chan[97]

Swat Scouts[98]

Thall Scouts[99]

Tochi Scouts – Miramshah, North Waziristan Agency[100]

FC in Baluchistan[101] – Quetta (Maj. Gen. Salim Nawaz[102]); Responsible for the Baluchistan border[103]

Bhambore Rifles[104]

Chagai Militia – Noshki[105]
Ghazaband Scouts – Quetta[106] (Col. Shahzad[107])
Kalat Scouts Kalat[108]
Kharan Rifles – (Col. Naveed Akhtar[109])
Loralai Scouts[110]

Maiwand Rifles[111]
Makran Scouts[112]
Pishin Scouts Chaman[113] (Col. Javid Iqbal[114])
Sibi Scouts[115]
Zhob Militia[116]

Pakistan Rangers[117] – Sialkot[118]; Responsible for the Indian border[119]

Pakistan Rangers Punjab[120] – Lahore[121] (Maj. Gen. Muhammad Yaqub Khan[122])

Pakistan Rangers Sindh – Karachi[123] (Maj. Gen. Liaquat Ali[124])

Frontier Constabulary[125] – Peshawar (Commandant Zafarullah Khan[126]); Responsible for the border between FATA and NWFP[127]

Baluchistan Constabulary[128]

Levies and Khassadars – Responsible for policing the tribal areas of NWFP[129]

National Guard[130]

Janbaz Force[131]

Mujahid Force[132]

National Cadet Corps[133]

Women Guards

Airport Security Force – Karachi[134]; Responsible for security of facilities and equipment[135]

Coast Guard[136] – Karachi[137]; Responsible for anti-smuggling tasks[138]

 

Forces under Air Force command:

AHQ[139] – Islamabad (Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Suleman[140])

Northern Air Command – Peshawar[141] (Air Vice Marshal Faaiz Amir[142])

No. 33 (Fighter/Multi-Role) Wing – Kamra

No. 14 Squadron – Kamra

No. 25 Squadron – Kamra

No. 87 Squadron – Kamra

No. 35 (Composite Air Transport) Wing – Chaklala

No. 6 Squadron – Chaklala

No. 12 (VIP) Squadron – Chaklala

No. 41 (Light Cruiser) Squadron – Chaklala

No. 36 (Tactical Attack) Wing – Peshawar

No. 16 Squadron – Peshawar

No. 26 Squadron – Peshawar

No. 81 Squadron – Peshawar

No. 37 (Combat Training) Wing – Mianwali

No. 1 (Fighter Conversion Unit) Squadron – Mianwali

No. 18 (Operational Conversion Unit) Squadron – Mianwali

No. 19 (Operational Conversion Unit) Squadron – Mianwali

No. 86 Squadron – Mianwali

Central Air Command – Sargodha[143]

No. 34 (Fighter) Wing – Rafiqui

No. 5 Squadron – Rafiqui

No. 15 Squadron – Rafiqui

No. 20 Squadron – Rafiqui

No. 27 Squadron – Rafiqi

No. 83 Squadron – Kahuta

No. 38 (Multi-Role) Wing – Mushaf

No. 9 Squadron – Mushaf

No. 11 (Operational Conversion Unit) Squadron – Mushaf

No. 24 Squadron – Mushaf

No. 82 Squadron – Mushaf

Southern Air Command – Masroor[144]

No. 31 (Fighter) Wing – Samungli

No. 17 Squadron – Samungli

No. 23 Squadron – Samungli

No. 85 Squadron – Samungli

No. 32 (Fighter Ground Attack) Wing – Masroor

No. 2 Squadron – Masroor

No. 7 Squadron – Masroor

No. 8 Squadron – Masroor

No. 22 (Operational Conversion Unit) Squadron – Masroor

No. 84 Squadron – Masroor

 

Forces under Navy command:

NHQ[145] – Islamabad[146] (Adm. Noman Bashir[147])

Commander Karachi (COMKAR) – Karachi[148] (Vice Adm. Saleem Ahmed Meenai[149]); Responsible for training establishments[150]

Commander Coast (COMCOAST) – Karachi (Vice Admiral Muhammad Shafi[151]); Responsible for seaward defense of coast from Karachi to Jiwani[152]

Commander Logistics (COMLOG) – Karachi[153] (Vice Adm. Azher Shamim[154])

Commander Pakistan Fleet (COMPAK) – Karachi[155] (Rear Adm. Mohammad Asif Sandila[156])

Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST) – Karachi

Commander North (COMNOR) – Islamabad (Commodore Syed Hassan Mustafa[157]); Responsible for administration, personnel, and facilities in northern Pakistan[158]

Naval Air Arm[159] – Faisal[160] (Commodore Adnan Nazir[161])

No. 27 Squadron – Faisal

No. 28 Squadron – Faisal

No. 29 Squadron – Faisal; Responsible for the northern Arabian Sea[162]

No. 93 Squadron – Faisal

No. 111 (Air-to-Surface Vessel/Antisubmarine Warfare) Squadron – Faisal; Responsible for the northern Arabian Sea[163]

No. 222 Squadron – Faisal

No. 333 Squadron – Faisal; Responsible for the northern Arabian Sea[164]

No. 444 Squadron – Faisal

Naval Special Services Group (SSGN)[165] – Karachi[166]

Marines[167] – Karachi[168] (Capt. Arshad M. Khan[169]); Responsible for guarding coastal installations against air attack[170]

PNS Qasim; Responsible for general administration and logistics[171]

Marine Battalion[172]

Creeks Battalion[173]



 

Appendix I – Army Administrative Structure 

The Pakistani Army uses regimental and corps training centers for recruitment and training. After training, units are deployed for operational purposes to one of the nine Army corps listed in the first section of this order of battle.

Infantry[174]

Azad Kashmir Regiment – Attock (Brig. Syed Shahid Ali[175])

Baloch Regiment – Abbottabad[176]

Frontier Force Regiment – Abbottabad (Brig. Sikander Khan[177])

Northern Light Infantry Regiment[178] – Bunji[179]

Punjab Regiment – Mardan (Brig. Imtiaz Ahmad Wyne[180])

Sindh Regiment – Petaro[181]

Armored Corps – Nowshera[182] (Maj. Gen. Najeeb Uz-Zaman[183])

Corps of Engineers[184] – Risalpur[185] (Maj. Gen. Muhammad Arif[186])

Military Police Corps – Dera Ismail Khan[187]

Service Corps – Nowshera[188]

Corps of Artillery – Nowshera[189]

12th Artillery Division – Gujranwala (Maj. Gen. Athar Hussain Shah[190])

Corps of Signals – Kohat[191]

Army Medical Corps (AMC)[192]

Army Education Corps [193]

Corps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering[194]

Army Ordnance Corps – Karachi[195]



 

Appendix II – Military Bases in NWFP and FATA[196]

Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP)

 

Abbottabad District

 

Abbottabad

Center, Baloch Regiment

Center, Frontier Force Regiment

 

Kakul

Pakistan Military Academy

 

Dera Ismail Khan District

 

Dera Ismail Khan

HQ, Military Police Corps

 

Kohat District

 

Kohat

HQ, 9 Infantry Division (XI Corps)

HQ, Corps of Signals[197]

Satellite Airbase, PAF[198]

Garrison Cadet College (PAF)[199]

Cadet College Kohat (PAF)[200]

 

Nowshera District

 

Cherat

HQ, SSG

 

Nowshera

HQ, Armored Corps

HQ, Corps of Artillery

HQ, Service Corps

Army School of Armor and Mechanized Warfare

 

Risalpur

HQ, Corps of Engineers[201]

Military College of Engineering

 

Mardan District

 

Mardan

HQ, 7 Infantry Division (XI Corps)

Center, Punjab Regiment

Army School of Artillery[202]

 

Peshawar District

 

Peshawar

HQ, XI Corps

HQ, 9 Squadron (Army Aviation Corps)

HQ, FC NWFP

HQ, Frontier Constabulary[203]

HQ, Northern Air Command (PAF)[204]

HQ, No. 36 Wing (PAF Northern)[205]

SSG Airborne School

 

Swat District

 

Saidu Sharif

HQ, Brigade[206]

 

Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)

 

Bajaur Agency

 

Khar

HQ, Bajaur Scouts (FC NWFP)[207]

 

Dir Agency

 

Balambat

HQ, Dir Scouts (FC NWFP)[208]

 

Tor Ghundi

Base, Dir Scouts (FC NWFP)[209]

 

Khyber Agency

 

Bara

Base, Mahsud Scouts (FC NWFP)[210]

 

Landi Kotal

HQ, Khyber Rifles (FC NWFP)[211]

 

Meelwat

Base, Khyber Rifles (FC NWFP)[212]

 

Milward

Base, Mahsud Scouts (FC NWFP)[213]

 

Salope

Base, Khyber Rifles (FC NWFP)[214]

Base, Mahsud Scouts (FC NWFP)[215]

 

Shagai

Base, Khyber Rifles (FC NWFP)[216]

 

Mohmand Agency

 

Tor Ghundi

Base, Dir Scouts (FC NWFP)[217]

 

North Waziristan Agency

 

Dosali

Base, Shawal Rifles (FC NWFP)[218]

 

Mir Ali

Base, Tochi Scouts (FC NWFP)[219]

Scouts Training Academy (FC NWFP)[220]

 

Miramshah

HQ, Tochi Scouts (FC NWFP)[221]

Base, Army[222]

 

Razmak

Base, Army[223]

 

Spinwam

Base, Thall Scouts (FC NWFP)[224]

 

South Waziristan Agency

 

Jandola

Base, South Waziristan Scouts (FC NWFP)[225]

 

Manzai

Base, South Waziristan Scouts (FC NWFP)[226]

 

Sararogha

Base, South Waziristan Scouts (FC NWFP)[227]

 

Seplatoi

Base, South Waziristan Scouts (FC NWFP)[228]

 

Serwakai

Base, South Waziristan Scouts (FC NWFP)[229]

 

Tanai

Base, South Waziristan Scouts (FC NWFP)[230]

 

Tiarza

Base, South Waziristan Scouts (FC NWFP)[231]

 

Wana

HQ, South Waziristan Scouts (FC NWFP)[232]

Base, Army[233]

 

Zalai

Base, South Waziristan Scouts (FC NWFP)[234]

 

Zam Chan

Base, South Waziristan Scouts (FC NWFP)[235]

 

Zarai Noor Colony

HQ, Brigade[236]

 



 



[1] Army forces total 550,000 personnel (“Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 353). The Jane’s estimate from late 2008 is somewhat higher, with 619,000 active personnel and 528,000 in reserve (“Rearming Pakistan: Pakistan Country Briefing, part two,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 13 November 2008, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). The Pakistani government has deployed troops from the army as well as the paramilitary Frontier Corps to the NWFP. Jane’s estimates that 160,000 army and Frontier Corps troops are currently deployed in and close to the NWFP, while the IISS places the estimate at 112,000 troops (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009; “Pakistan: Tribal Areas,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 329). Pakistan’s Defense Attaché to Washington, Brig. Nazir Butt, has stated that 150,000 soldiers were involved in the offensive in Swat started on 25 April 2009, including five infantry divisions, 58 wings of the Frontier Corps and one SSG battalion, with the Air Force providing air support (Anwar Iqbal, “Swat to be secured in five weeks: official,” Dawn Media Group, 28 May 2009, available at http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakis...).
[2] The Army has its Military Academy in Kakul, near Abbottabad (“Training Institutions,” Pakistan Army, accessed 14 July 2009, available at http://www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk/AWPReview/HomePage.aspx?rnd=468).
[3] Responsible for training, deployment, and activation of nuclear missile assets. IISS estimates 12,000 to 15,000 personnel (“Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 353). Unit representation based on: “Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009.
[4] Iftikhar A. Khan, “Strategic forces command gets new head,” Dawn Media Group, 8 March 2007, available at http://www.dawn.com/2007/03/08/top8.htm.
[5] Armor-heavy ‘strike’ corps. Its 17th and 37th Mechanized Infantry Divisions have been deployed to the NWFP. The unit representation (at the level of division) for I Corps and the other numbered army corps is based on: “Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009.
[6] Currently overseeing relief operations in Swat District (Eric Schmitt, “Head of U.S. Joint Chiefs Praises Pakistani Operation,” New York Times, 16 July 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/17/world/asia/17mullen.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq...). The Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR) issued a statement explaining that “a corps headquarters, headed by Lieutenant General Nadeem Ahmed (former deputy chairman of the Erra), has been tasked with forming a special support group for the IDPs, for coordinating and directing all efforts of the government, the Army and other agencies for optimal utilisation of resources in providing relief” (“Kayani orders troops to avoid collateral damage,” News International, 14 May 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22123). See also: “Lahore, Mangla corps commanders transferred,” The Daily Times, 25 March 2008, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008\03\25\story_25-3-2008_pg1_12.
[7] “Corps commanders of Peshawar, Quetta and Bahawalpur changed,” Daily Times, 15 April 2007, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007\04\15\story_15-4-2007_pg7_19.
[8] Operated in Swat (Operation Rah-e-Haq) from November 2007 to December 2008, at which point it returned to Kharian and was replaced in Swat by the 37th Division. (Shuja Nawaz, “FATA – A Most Dangerous Place,” CSIS, January 2009, available at http://mtblog.newyorker.com/online/blogs/stevecoll/Nawaz_FATA_book_low-r...).
[9] Shuja Nawaz, “FATA – A Most Dangerous Place,” CSIS, January 2009, available at http://mtblog.newyorker.com/online/blogs/stevecoll/Nawaz_FATA_book_low-res.pdf.
[10] Replaced Maj. Gen. Ijaz Awan on 4 July 2009 and will assume duties on 14 August (Iftikhar A. Khan, “Swat commanding officer Gen Ijaz replaced,” Dawn News Agency, 5 July 2009, available at http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakis...).
[11] Division assigned responsibility for operations in Swat in December 2008 (Shuja Nawaz, “FATA – A Most Dangerous Place,” CSIS, January 2009, available at http://mtblog.newyorker.com/online/blogs/stevecoll/Nawaz_FATA_book_low-r...). Two brigades of the division sent to Swat in 2008; during the operation begun in April 2008, they cleared the region around Mingora and established control over the city (Brian Cloughley, “Swat team – Pakistan targets militants in tribal areas,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 17 July 2009, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). One of the officers leading military operations in Mingora, Swat’s capital, is Brigadier Tahir Hameed (Augustine Anthony, “Pakistan rescues boys trained as suicide bombers,” Reuters, 28 July 2009, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/asiaCrisis/idUSISL90520).
[12] Armor-heavy ‘strike’ corps. Its 14th Infantry Division has been deployed to the NWFP. (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009.)
[13] Muhammad Imran, “Multan and Karachi corps commanders replaced,” The Daily Times, 11 April 2006, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006\04\11\story_11-4-2006_pg7_8.
[14] Deployed in South Waziristan in 2007-08 (for the Zalzala Operation), where it was commanded by Maj. Gen. Tariq Khan (Iqbal Khattak, “Deserted town shows human cost of Operation Zalzala,” The Daily Times, 20 May 2008, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008\05\20\story_20-5-2008_pg7_26).
[15] Shakil Shaikh, “New postings in Army,” News International, 3 September 2008, available at http://thenews.jang.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=17004.
[16] Essentially defensive corps with mainly wheeled infantry and artillery (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). Elements of IV Corps (including the 3rd Independent Armored Brigade) have been deployed to the NWFP. These troops were shifted back to Jhelum in December 2008. (Sahil Nagpal, “Pakistan won’t withdraw army from its western border,” TopNews.in, 27 December 2008, available at http://www.topnews.in/pakistan-wont-withdraw-army-its-western-borders-21....)
[17] “Major reshuffle in Army,” News International, 25 March 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=13736.
[18] “Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009.
[19] “Taliban suspected over Lahore siege,” AlJazeera.net, 1 April 2009, available at http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia/2009/03/20093301711525574.html; “Briefs: Martyr laid to rest,” News International, 21 May 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=178760.
[20] “Lt Gen Shafaat orders for flood alerts,” Daily Times, 30 June 2007, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007\06\30\story_30-6-2007_pg7_24; “Transcript of Trib Interview With Gen. David H. Petraeus,” iStockAnalyst, 26 October 2008, available at http://www.istockanalyst.com/article/viewnewspaged/articleid/2738623/pageid/1.
[21] “Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment” includes the following note regarding independent units: “Independent armoured and infantry brigades are capable of extended operations without necessarily being reliant on a higher HQ for short-term logistic or intimate support. They can be used in counter-attack, exploitation of an advance, or rapid movement to reinforce formations under pressure.” (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 4.)
[22] “List of recipients of Sitara-i-Eisaar and Tamgha-i-Eissaar,” The Daily Times, 1 July 2006, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006\07\01\story_1-7-2006_pg7_27.
[23] Essentially defensive corps with mainly wheeled infantry and artillery (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). In addition to its two divisions, the V Corps also has three independent armored brigades, which operate to all intents as an armored division (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009).
[24] Iftikhar A. Khan, “Kayani shakes up army command,” Dawn Media Group, 30 September 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/09/30/top1.htm.
[25] V Corps is also tasked with countering a possible thrust by India intended to cut the main Karachi-Lahore road and possible landings by Indian marines or special forces. (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009.)
[26] “Briefs: Training to help maintain edge over adversary,” News International, 13 June 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=182764.
[27] The three divisions of the X Corps have a total of twelve brigades along the Line of Control (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009). In addition, its 19th and 23rd Divisions have been deployed to the NWFP.
[28] Shakil Shaikh, “Lt Gen Pasha to head ISI,” News International, 30 September 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=17590.
[29] “Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009. Also responsible for depth maneuver and counter-attack in Punjab (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[30] Commands four brigades with HQ in Skardu, Astor, Siachen Glacier, and Gilgit. 323rd Brigade (HQ Siachen) has two battalions and an Special Service Group (SSG) contingent of about company size. (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009.)
[31] “Defence Day is being observed in Northern Areas also,” Geo Television Network, 6 September 2008, available at http://www.geo.tv/9-6-2008/24294.htm.
[32] Shakil Shaikh, “New postings in Army,” News International, 3 September 2008, available at http://thenews.jang.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=17004.
[33] Mike Hanna, “Regaining control of Swat valley,” Al Jazeera, 24 May 2009, available at http://english.aljazeera.net/focus/2009/05/200952411916978127.html.
[34] Currently approximately 20,000 troops commanded by Maj. Gen. Ghani in northern Swat (“Pak military pound Taliban hideouts, 41 killed,” IndianExpress.com, 22 June 2009, available at http://www.indianexpress.com/news/Pak-military-pound-Taliban-hideouts--4...). Two brigades of the division were sent to Swat in 2008; during the operation begun in April 2008, they moved north up the Swat Valley and took the centers of Peochar and Bahrain (Brian Cloughley, “Swat team – Pakistan targets militants in tribal areas,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 17 July 2009, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[35] Division was involved in the Rah-e-Haq Operation begun in November 2007 in Swat (“Primary target in Swat achieved: DGMO,” The Daily Times, 17 January 2008, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008\01\17\story_17-1-2008_pg1_2). Two brigades of the division also sent to Swat in late 2008; they appeared to be under the command of HQ 19th Division (Brian Cloughley, “Swat team – Pakistan targets militants in tribal areas,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 17 July 2009, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[36] Shakil Shaikh, “New postings in Army,” News International, 3 September 2008, available at http://thenews.jang.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=17004.
[37] “Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009.
[38] The Army also has bases in North and South Waziristan. Its headquarters for North Waziristan are located in Miramshah, and for South Waziristan, Wana. (“Kayani visits North & South Waziristan,” News International, 3 May 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=21901.)
[39] Anwarullah Khan, “Kayani visits Bajaur; 15 killed in clashes,” Dawn Media Group, 29 September 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/09/29/top3.htm.
[40] XI Corps was used as reinforcement in the eastern portion of Pakistan during the India-Pakistan confrontation in 2002, however it is currently heavily involved in internal security and counter-insurgency operations in NWFP and Baluchistan, making it highly unlikely that any elements will be deployed to the East in the near future (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 4).
[41] “Pakistan Moved Half of its Army – Largest Military Movements after World War II,” Haqeeqat.org, 17 June 2009, available at http://www.haqeeqat.org/2009/06/17/pakistan-moved-half-of-its-army-large.... (Unable to verify this information with another source.)
[42] Also known as the “Golden Arrow Division,” the 7th Division has been involved in operations in both Swat and North Waziristan (Hameedullah Khan, “Woman amoung six killed in Swat,” Dawn Media Group, 24 August 2008, available at http://suvastu.thewalt.org/4.html; Syed Saleem Shahzad, “From Washington to war in Waziristan,” Asia Times Online, 11 October 2007, available at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/IJ11Df01.html). During the Swat operation begun in April 2008, units of the 7th and 9th Divisions were primarily positioned in Lower Dir, Buner, and along the Swat Valley t the south of Mingora (Brian Cloughley, “Swat team – Pakistan targets militants in tribal areas,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 17 July 2009, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[43] “Government to open cadet colleges in FATA,” The Frontier Post, 7 December 2008, available at http://www.thefrontierpost.com/News.aspx?ncat=cn&nid=1538&ad=07-12-2008.
[44] The 9th Division has been involved in operations in South Waziristan, Kohat, and Hangu (Matthew Pennington, “On Pakistan’s wild frontier, tribesmen wrest villages from foreign militants,” Associated Press, 11 April 2007, available at http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/world/20070411-1159-pakistan-oustingu... Abdul Sami Paracha, “18 killed at Kohat cantt mosque,” Dawn Media Group, 20 July 2007, available at http://www.dawn.com/2007/07/20/top4.htm; “Gunships pound Zargari in Hangu,” The Daily Times, 20 July 2008, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008\07\20\story_20-7-2008_pg1_4).
[45] “Corps commanders of Peshawar, Quetta and Bahawalpur changed,” Daily Times, 15 April 2007, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007\04\15\story_15-4-2007_pg7_19.
[46] XII Corps was used as reinforcement in the eastern portion of Pakistan during the India-Pakistan confrontation in 2002. It is heavily involved in internal security and counter-insurgency in Balochistan and has been used for operations against the separatist Baloch National Army. (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 3.)
[47] “Corps commanders of Peshawar, Quetta and Bahawalpur changed,” Daily Times, 15 April 2007, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007\04\15\story_15-4-2007_pg7_19; “DSP gunned down in Quetta,” Dawn Media Group, 15 January 2009, available http://www.dawn.com/2009/01/15/top9.htm.
[48] Essentially defensive corps with mainly wheeled infantry and artillery (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). Elements of the corps’ 15th Infantry Division may have been deployed to the NWFP (Praveen Swami, “Obama’s world & Pakistan’s war on terror, The Hindu, 8 July 2009, available at http://www.hindu.com/2009/06/08/stories/2009060855911000.htm). (Unable to verify this information with another source.)
[49] “Kayani shakes up army command,” Dawn News Group, 30 September 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/09/30/top1.htm.
[50] “Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 3.
[51] Deployed to Swat in late 2008 (Brian Cloughley, “Swat team – Pakistan targets militants in tribal areas,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 17 July 2009, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[52] Essentially defensive corps with mainly wheeled infantry and artillery (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). Elements of XXXI Corps’ 14th Infantry Division have been deployed to the NWFP.
[53] “ISI chief, four corps commanders changed,” The Daily Times, 30 September 2008, available at http://dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008\09\30\story_30-9-2008_pg1_1.
[54] Operated in Dera Ismail Khan during Operation Zalzala, and was redeployed to Kasur and Sialkot (near the Indian border) in December 2008 (Jane Perlez, “Pakistan resists U.S. pressure on cross-border raids,” New York Times, 16 May 2008, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/16/world/asia/16iht-pakistan.4.12971281.h... “Pakistan moves troops toward Indian border,” USA Today, 27 December 2008, available at http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2008-12-26-pakistan_N.htm).
[55] Shakil Shaikh, “New postings in Army,” News International, 3 September 2008, available at http://thenews.jang.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=17004.
[56] Unit representation based on: “Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009.
[57] The Aviation School is also located in Rawalpindi (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 13).
[58] Shakil Shaikh, “New postings in Army,” News International, 3 September 2008, available at http://thenews.jang.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=17004.
[59] Small parties of the SSG were deployed to northern Swat in April 2008 (Brian Cloughley, “Swat team – Pakistan targets militants in tribal areas,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 17 July 2009, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[60] SSG also has a base at Attock and an Airborne School at Peshawar (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 10).
[61] “Pakistan Moved Half of its Army – Largest Military Movements after World War II,” Haqeeqat.org, 17 June 2009, available at http://www.haqeeqat.org/2009/06/17/pakistan-moved-half-of-its-army-large.... (Unable to verify this information with another source.)
[62] Based on “Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 10.
[63] Unit representation for the 1st and 2nd Brigade based on: Lt. Col. Ghulam Jilani, SSG, Tarekh Kai Aaena Mai, 1st Edition, HQ SSG Cherat 2004. In S. Saad, M. Ali, and Usman Shabbir, “Special Service Group (Army),” Pakistan Military Consortium, http://www.pakdef.info/pakmilitary/army/regiments/ssg.html. An unspecified SSG battalion was involved in the Swat operation in April 2009 (Anwar Iqbal, “Swat to be secured in five weeks: official,” Dawn Media Group, 28 May 2009, available at http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakis...).
[64] IISS estimates 2,000 personnel in the Maritime Security Agency (MSA) (“Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 355). The IISS classifies the MSA as a paramilitary group, however Cloughley describes it as “an independent service of the armed forces... reliant on the PN [Pakistan Navy] for manning and support” (Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[65] “Maritime anti-oil spill exercise concludes,” Pakistan Press International, 2 April 2009, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[66] The Maritime Security Agency (MSA) is also responsible for enforcing international laws, engaging in search and rescue, preventing marine disasters, and protecting the marine environment (“Pakistan Navy key player in global efforts to ensure against illegal or security threat activities on high seas,” Pakistan Press International, 5 March 2007, accessed via HighBeam Research).  Cloughley indicates that the tasks of the MSA are to protect Pakistani fishermen, police the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), perform search and rescue in the maritime zone, and conserve marine life (Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[67] Pakistan’s paramilitary forces are comprised of two main paramilitary groups (Frontier Corps and Pakistan Rangers) and six essentially civilian organizations. Their officers are provided by the regular forces. The paramilitary forces are subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior in peacetime, during which they police borders and economic zones, and to the GHQ in war, during which they may provide reinforcement for the army. (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 10.) Jane’s estimates that there are 100,000 personnel in the Paramilitary Forces, while the IISS estimates up to 304,000 active personnel. (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 10; “Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 355).
[68] Cloughley estimates 65,000 personnel in the FC as of April 2000, which are divided into two elements: FC NWFP and FC Baluchistan (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). The IISS indicates 65,000 FC personnel have been reported, comprised of one independent armed reconnaissance squadron and eleven paramilitary regiments, which are made up of 40 paramilitary battalions total (“Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 355). As of the end of July 2009, the FC NWFP was nearing the end of  a recruitment drive to increase the force by 7,000 men (Isambard Wilkinson, “The man who’s defeating Pakistan’s Taliban,” The National, 29 July 2009, available at http://www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090729/FOREIGN/70...).
[69] The unit representation of the FC NWFP is based on an article by the Jamestown Foundation (Tariq Mahmud Ashraf, “The Pakistan Frontier Corps in the War on Terrorism – Part One,” Terrorism Monitor, Vol. 6, Issue 15, 25 July 2008, available at http://www.jamestown.org/programs/gta/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=5053&tx_ttnews[backPid]=167&no_cache=) and verified using news sources.
[70] HQ located in Balahisar Fort in Peshawar. The FC NWFP primary training institute (Scouts Training Academy) is located in Mirali (North Waziristan Agency). (“FC soldier hailed as hero for exceptional bravery,” News International, 5 February 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/print1.asp?id=94751; “Pakistan minister says Frontier Corps suffered higher casualties in Waziristan,” The Daily Times, 18 August 2006, accessed via NewsBank.)
[71] Replaced Maj. Gen. Mohammad Alam Khattak (who was promoted to Deputy Chief of General Staff) as Inspector General of FC in NWFP in September 2008. Appointed and moved to Bajaur “weeks after fighting intensified” in Bajaur. (“Pakistani forces close to securing Bajaur: Gen Tariq,” Dawn Media Group, 24 February 2009, available at http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakis....) Maj. Gen. Khan led operations in Bajaur in September 2008, and since May 2009 he has commanded operation in Buner. In addition, his forces have been committed in Dir, and extra FC forces have been deployed to South Waziristan. The FC is currently in the process of reopening road and border passes in Bajaur and deploying against increasingly combative militants in Khyber and Orakzai Agencies. (Isambard Wilkinson, “The man who’s defeating Pakistan’s Taliban,” The National, 29 July 2009, available at http://www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090729/FOREIGN/70....)
[72] FC troops have also operated in the NWFP. In April 2009, official sources indicated that FC troops would be involved in opeartions in Buner, along with two brigade army troops, an air squadron, and Frontier Constabulary forces. (Delawar Jan, “Full-scale military operation likely in Buner,” News International, 28 April 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=174686.)
[73] Anwarullah Khan, “Kayani visits Bajaur; 15 killed in clashes,” Dawn Media Group, 29 September 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/09/29/top3.htm.
[74] “2 schools blown up in Bajaur,” News International, 4 February 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=160744.
[75] Some Chitral Scouts personnel are currently deployed in Bajaur (Manzoor Ali Shah, “Roads’ closure adds to travel woes, price hike in Chitral,” The Daily Times, 11 July 2009, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009\07\11\story_11-7-2009_pg7_27).
[76] “Children park constructed on bank of Chitral river,” Pakistan Observer, 30 May 2009, available at http://pakobserver.net/200905/30/news/National03.asp.
[77] Several news reports have indicated that Brig. Amal Zada is the commanding officer in operations in the Lower Dir district, however none of these have specifically indicated him as the commander of the Dir Scouts (Julie McCarthy, “Local Militias Help Pakistani Army Fight Taliban,” NPR, 15 June 2009, available at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=105436300).
[78] Near Timergara (“Five soldiers injured in Timergara rocket attack,” Dawn Media Group, 16 July 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/07/16/top5.htm). The Dir Scouts also have a fort at Tor Ghundi (“Mohmand,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Mohmand.pdf), also known as Tor Ghundai (Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 5034).
[79] Iqbal Khattak, “Officials questioning New Zealander arrested from Peshawar,” The Daily Times, 14 February 2009, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009\02\14\story_14-2-2009_pg7_31.
[80] The Khyber Rifles’ forts in the Khyber Agency include Fort Meelwat, Fort Salope, and Fort Shagai (“Chinese minister visits Pakistan tribal area paramilitary HQ,” News International, 4 April 2005, accessed via NewsBank; “Four soldiers of Chitral Scouts killed in Khyber,” Dawn Media Group, 9 July 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/07/09/top3.htm; “Afridi,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 6 February 2009, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Afridi_combo.pdf; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 4438).
[81] “Landi Kotal: Security issues discussed with US-Afghan team,” Dawn Media Group, 29 February 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/02/29/local9.htm.
[82] “Clashes continue in Kurram Agency,” Dawn Media Group, 25 November 2007, available at http://www.dawn.com/2007/11/25/top10.htm.
[83] The Mahsud Scouts have forts at Milward and Salope, and a base located near Bara, in Khyber Agency (“Orakzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Orakzai.pdf; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 3419; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 4288; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 396; “Afridi,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 6 February 2009, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Afridi_combo.pdf).
[84] Iqbal Khattak, “Mahsud Scouts commandant woos militants through Quran,” The Daily Times, 30 April 2008, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/print.asp?page=2008\04\30\story_30-4-2008_pg7_50.
[85] “Four kidnapped in Mohmand Agency,” News International, 30 October 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=143931.
[86] “Security forces kill three militants in Darra operation,” News International, 17 September 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=17323.
[87] The Shawal Rifles have a fort on the Esha-Razmak Road in Dosali area of North Waziristan Agency, called the Girdi Rogha Fort (“Militants kidnap 10 FC men in NWA,” News International, 31 July 2009, available at http://thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=23601; “Tribe: Wazir-Utmanzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 January 2009; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 1346).
[88] “Wazirs-Ahmadzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 10 February 2009, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Ahmadzai_Wazir.pdf; Asif Haroon Raja, “A peep into Waziristan and Orakzai Agency,” Asian Tribune, 11 July 2009, available at http://asiantribune.com/07/11/a-peep-into-waziristan-and-orakzai-agency/.
[89] Fort at Jandola (Mushtaq Yusufzai and Irfan Burki, “Operation launched in South Waziristan,” News International, 27 May 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22377).
[90] Camp at Manzai (Mushtaq Yusufzai, “Forces pound militants’ hideouts in SWA,” News International, 17 June 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22792).
[91] Fort at Sararogha (“Militants overrun paramilitary fort: Militia suffers heavy casualty,” Dawn Media Group, 17 January 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/01/17/top1.htm).
[92] Fort at Seplatoi (Mushtaq Yusufzai and Irfan Burki, “Operation launched in South Waziristan,” News International, 27 May 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22377).
[93] Fort at Serwakai ("Troops face tough resistance in SWA", News International, 23 June 2009, available at http://thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22883; Pakistan Gazeteer, 14 November 2007, p. 4389).
[94] Fort at Tanai (“Wazirs-Ahmadzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 10 February 2009, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Ahmadzai_Wazir.pdf; Pakistan Gazeteer, 14 November 2007, p. 4858).
[95] Camp at Tiarza (Mushtaq Yusufzai and Irfan Burki, “Operation launched in South Waziristan,” News International, 27 May 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22377).
[96] Checkpost about twelve miles from Wana (“Pakistani daily says 73 troops killed in tribal areas,” News International, 12 September 2005, accessed via NewsBank; Salman Masood, “A bomb kills 8 Pakistanis, and it is seen as a warning,” New York Times, 3 October 2008, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/03/world/asia/03iht-03pstan.17458262.html).
[97] Checkpost in Bermal Tehsil (“5 officials missing in Waziristan attack,” The Daily Times, 25 August 2008, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008\08\25\story_25-8-2008_pg1_7).
[98] “Two Pakistani border guards killed, 11 injured in North Waziristan blast,” News International, 31 January 2006, accessed via NewsBank.
[99] The Thall Scouts have a post at Spinwam, in North Waziristan Agency (“Tribe: Wazir-Utmanzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 January 2009; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 4736).
[100] The Tochi Scouts headquarters are in Miramshah (“Tribe: Wazir-Utmanzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 January 2009; “Scouts HQ in Miranshah,” News International, 8 December 2003, available at http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-19635085_ITM). They also have a fort in Mir Ali (“Tribe: Wazir-Utmanzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 January 2009; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 5015).
[101] FC Baluchistan (which contains 13 units) is not based in NWFP and has not been deployed there. It is included in this order of battle merely to give a more complete picture of the military structure.
[102] Amanullah Kasi, “No military operation launched in Balochistan, says FC,” Dawn Media Group, 3 August 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/08/03/top11.htm.
[103] The FC in Baluchistan also provide support during natural disasters and internal conflict and play a significant role in anti-smuggling and -narcotics (“Passing Out of 41st Baloch batch,” Pakistan Press International, 1 July 2006, accessed via HighBeam Research).
[104] “FC foils subversive attempt in Dera Bugti,” Pakistan Press International, 8 December 2004, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[105] “Governor visits HQ Chagai Militia,” Pakistan Press International, 14 December 2006, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[106] “CM lauds FC role in maintaining peace,” Pakistan Press International, 24 February 2005, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[107] “Police, FC flag march,” Pakistan Press International, 5 January 2009, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[108] “Corps Commander takes aerial visit of Quetta, Kalat,” Pakistan Press International, 25 August 2005, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[109] “Iran, Pakistan annual meeting,” Pakistan Press International, 10 May 2009, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[110] “FC rounds up 5 suspects along with arms, ammunition,” Pakistan Press International, 2 February 2006, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[111] The Maiwand Rifles have a camp in Kohlu, however it is unclear whether it is their headquarters (“FC constable died in rocket attack,” Daily Times, 30 June 2004, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_30-6-2004_pg7_43.
[112] The Makran Scouts have posts in the Mand area of Turbat Tehsil (“Rockets fired on Kohlu, Turbat,” Dawn Media Group, 29 May 2005, available at http://www.dawn.com/2005/05/29/top7.htm).
[113] “Chaman-Boucher visits Chaman,” Pakistan Press International, 15 June 2007, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[114] “FC seize 330 Kg Charas,” Pakistan Press International, 29 May 2009, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[115] The Sibi Scouts have a checkpost at Bibi Nani in Bolan (“Sibi Scouts, unknown persons clash,” Pakistan Press International, 16 June 2006, accessed via HighBeam Research).
[116] “FC organize free medical camp at Subukzai,” Pakistan Press International, 9 March 2007, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[117] IISS estimates up to 40,000 personnel in the Pakistan Rangers (“Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 355). Cloughley estimates 25,000 to 30,000 personnel as of 2000, divided into three commands: Mehran Force (an internal security force working under HQ V Corps in Karachi), and two additional groups stationed along the border with India (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[118] Pakistan Rangers have subordinate HQ in Sialkot, Bahawalpur, and Rahimyar Khan (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 10).
[119] They can also be deployed elsewhere as required by the internal security situation (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 10).
[120] Composed of ten wings (“Suspected Indian smuggler killed by Pak rangers,” Press Trust of India, 15 September 2005, available at http://www.expressindia.com/news/fullstory.php?newsid=54682).
[121] “Rangers, BSF officials discuss cease-fire violation,” Pakistan Observer, 14 October 2008, available at http://pakobserver.net/200810/14/news/topstories05.asp.
[122] “Education policy to focus on technical training: PM,” The Nation, 2 May 2009, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[123] “Foreign diplomats visit Rangers HQ,” Daily Times, 17 December 2003, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_17-12-2003_pg7_58.
[124] “Karachiites apprehensive on eve of May 12, as police summon 5000 extra cops,” Pakistan Press International, 12 May 2009, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[125] The Frontier Constabulary is independent but associated with FC NWFP. It operates in the settled rather than tribal areas, and its 5,000 personnel are subordinate to the NWFP government. (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata....) Forces are organized into platoons of roughly 40-45 soldiers each (Abdur Rehman Abid, “Taliban ambush FC convoy, foil Buner deployment,” Dawn Media Group, 23 April 2009, available at http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakis...). The Frontier Constabulary was involved in an April 2009 operation in Buner, for which eight platoons were deployed (“Full-scale military operation likely in Buner,” News International, 28 April 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=21782; Abdur Rehman Abid, “Taliban ambush FC convoy, foil Buner deployment,” Dawn Media Group, 23 April 2009, available at http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakis...).
[126] “National police meeting held,” News International, 23 June 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/print1.asp?id=184485.
[127] In 2007, nearly 70% of the Frontier Constabulary were serving is Islamabad, Karachi, and Baluchistan (Ismail Khan, “Govt’s writ weakening in NWFP, tribal areas,” Dawn Media Group, 29 March 2007, available at http://www.dawn.com/2007/03/29/nat2.htm).
[128] According to Cloughley, the 2,500 members of the Baluchistan Constabulary perform similar tasks to the Frontier Constabulary, but they report to the Interior Ministry rather than the provincial government (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). However, subsequent news reports paint a different picture of the constabulary’s history. According to these, the Baluchistan Constabulary was formed in 2003-2005 to minimize Frontier Corps responsibilities in the province. The government allocated Rs 4.1 billion to raise the Baluchistan Constabulary, and under the plan, 6,000 people would be recruited who, in addition to the existing 4,000 personnel of the Baluchistan Reserve Police, would form the 10,000-member Baluchistan Constabulary. (See: “Monetary transfers to Balochistan drop,” Daily Times, 22 June 2003, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_22-6-2003_pg7_22; Ihtasham ul Haque, “Rs9.6bn to be spent on law & order: officials,” Dawn Media Group, 23 January 2004, available at http://www.dawn.com/2004/01/23/top6.htm.)
[129] They are drawn from the local tribes and provide a mediating force between them (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). The Levies and Khassadars, along with the Frontier Corps, were established by the British as a first line of defense against tribal attacks on the NWFP. The second line of defense was provided by the Frontier Constabulary along the border. (Khalid Aziz, “The importance of the Khyber operation,” News International, 7 July 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=122621.) According to a report by the FATA secretariat to the federal government, 6,779 Levies and 16,828 Khassadars are currently operating in FATA. In addition, the government is planning to recruit 5,000 additional Levies personnel and to increase the salaries and allowances of the Levies and Khassadars, also known as the tribal police. Levies personnel are provided with arms and ammunition by the government, unlike the Khassadars who use their own. (Khalid Kheshgi, “5,000 more Levies personnel being,” News International, 31 July 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/print1.asp?id=190764.)
[130] The National Guard has 185,000 personnel (“Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 355). Unit representation based on: “Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 355.
[131] The Janbaz Force has 100,000 personnel who are intended to serve close to their homes (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[132] The 60,000 members of the Mujahid Force are organized in battalions some with light air defense capability (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[133] The National Cadet Corps is drawn from universities and colleges (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[134] “35 more killed in Karachi rain-related incidents,” Pak Tribune, 20 July 2009, available at http://www.paktribune.com/news/index.php?id=217178.
[135] The Airport Security Force (ASF) is capable of guard, search, and escort duties but would be unable to defend an installation (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). The ASF training school is located in Karachi (“Pak remains no-fly zone for Indian aircraft,” ExpressIndia.com, 23 July 2002, available at http://www.expressindia.com/news/fullstory.php?newsid=12977).
[136] The Coast Guard (CG) is comprised of 2,000 members organized in three battalions (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). As of 2000, it operated about 30 small craft distributed along the coast, excluding Karachi port (Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[137] Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/mags/jni/history/jni2000/jni00036.htm@current&pageSelected=allJanes&keyword=%22coast%20guard%22%20pakistan&backPath=http://search.janes.com/Search&Prod_Name=JNI&.
[138] Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/mags/jni/history/jni2000/jni00036.htm@current&pageSelected=allJanes&keyword=%22coast%20guard%22%20pakistan&backPath=http://search.janes.com/Search&Prod_Name=JNI&.
[139] IISS estimates 45,000 active personnel in the Air Force (“Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 354), while Jane’s estimates 65,000 active personnel with 10,000 in reserve (“Rearming Pakistan: Pakistan Country Briefing, part two,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 13 November 2008, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). Unit representation based on: “Pakistan Armed Forces: Aircraft Order of Battle,” Scramble, accessed on 30 June 2009, available at http://www.scramble.nl/pk.htm. (Unable to verify this information with another source.)
[140] Shakil Shaikh, “Qamar Suleman appointed new air chief,” News International, 9 March 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=20828.
[141] Base in Peshawar known as PAF Camp Badaber. The PAF also has a satellite airbase in Kohat (used for emergency landing and recovery of aircraft, see: “Bangash,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 February 2009, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Bangash.pdf) and uses four NWFP civilian airfields (Bannu, Chitral, Miramshah, and Saidu) for the same purpose (see: “Pakistan Air Force Bases,” GlobalSecurity.org, 7 March 2009, available at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/pakistan/airbase.htm). The Pakistan Air Force Academy is located in Risalpur (Nowshera District), and the PAF’s two cadet colleges (Garrison Cadet College and Cadet College Kohat) are located in Kohat (“Bangash,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 February 2009, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Bangash.pdf). Also, the PAF plans to raise a squadron of JF-17 Thunder aircraft by the end of 2009, and Air Chief Marshal Qamar Suleman has stated this squadron will be based in Peshawar (“Peshawar base to station JF-17 Thunder aircraft: air chief,” News International, 18 April 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/print1.asp?id=173012).
[142] “PAF chief pays farewell visit to Chaklala airbase,” News International, 6 March 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=165923.
[143] “Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 354.
[144] “Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 354.
[145] IISS estimates 22,000 active personnel in the Navy, including 1,400 Marines and 2,000 Maritime Security Agency personnel (“Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 354), while Jane’s estimates 24,000 active personnel with another 5,000 in reserve (“Rearming Pakistan: Pakistan Country Briefing, part two,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 13 November 2008, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[146] Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/mags/jni/history/jni2000/jni00036.htm@current&pageSelected=allJanes&keyword=%22coast%20guard%22%20pakistan&backPath=http://search.janes.com/Search&Prod_Name=JNI&.
[147] “President Zardari appoints Noman Bashir new navy chief,” Associated Press of Pakistan, 5 October 2008, available at http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=54658&Itemid=2.
[148] Located at PNS Dilawar (Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[149] “Vice-Admiral Meenai new COMKAR,” News International, 8 November 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=145531.
[150] These include the Naval Academy (PNS Rahbar) and Engineering College. However, the Navy’s tactical school is subordinate to COMPAK. (Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata....)
[151] “Rear Admiral Muhammad Shafi promoted,” Associated Press Pakistan, 19 March 2009, available at http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=7119...).
[152] In addition, COMCOAST is also responsible for carrying out operations and safeguarding against drug and human trafficking (“Rear Admiral Mahmood Ahmad Khan takes over Coastal Command of PN,” Pakistan Press International, 16 April 2007, accessed via HighBeam Research).
[153] Located at PNS Peshawar (Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[154] “Wang says Pak, China have strong friendship bonds,” News International, 7 August 2009, available http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=84488.
[155] Located at PNS Haider. The majority of Pakistan’s fleet is based in Karachi, but the Navy also has facilities Port Qasim, Gwadar (PNS Akram), and Ormara (PNS Ahsan). (Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[156] “Sandila takes charge as Commander Pakistan Fleet,” News International, 22 October 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/print1.asp?id=142489.
[157] “Briefs: Change of guard ceremony at Mazar-e-Iqbal,” News International, 10 November 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=145922.
[158] Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/mags/jni/history/jni2000/jni00036.htm@current&pageSelected=allJanes&keyword=%22coast%20guard%22%20pakistan&backPath=http://search.janes.com/Search&Prod_Name=JNI&.
[159] Unit representation based on: “Pakistan Armed Forces: Aircraft Order of Battle,” Scramble, accessed on 30 June 2009, available at http://www.scramble.nl/pk.htm. Only No. 29, 111, and 333 Squadrons have been verified with another source (Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[160] Located at PNS Mehran (“Pakistan Armed Forces: Aircraft Order of Battle,” Scramble, accessed on 30 June 2009, available at http://www.scramble.nl/pk.htm).
[161] “Navy to get AEW aircraft and UAVs,” Daily Times, 30 January 2009, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009\01\30\story_30-1-2009_pg7_21.
[162] The squadron conducts reconnaissance, surveillance, antisubmarine warfare, electronic warfare, tactical direction, and strike missions (Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[163] The squadron conducts reconnaissance, surveillance, antisubmarine warfare, electronic warfare, tactical direction, and strike missions (Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[164] The squadron conducts reconnaissance, surveillance, antisubmarine warfare, electronic warfare, tactical direction, and strike missions (Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[165] Composed of approximately 1,000 personnel, the SSGN is responsible for conducting unconventional operations at sea and along the shoreline and also plays a minor role in the protection of individuals and facilities. Personnel are trained primarily with the army’s SSG in Peshawar, but sea-specific training is carried out at PNS Qasim. (Brian Cloughley, “Fleet Review, Pakistan’s small navy packs a punch,” Jane’s Navy International, 1 March 2000, Vol. 105, No. 2, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata....)
[166] Located at PNS Iqbal (“Special Forces (Maritime) (Pakistan),” Jane’s Amphibious and Special Forces, 24 June 2009, available at http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Amphibious-and-Special-Forces/Specia...).
[167] In 2006, Jane’s indicated that within two years the Marines would expand from its strength of 1,500 to about brigade-level (Robert Karniol, “Country Briefing: Pakistan – Plugging the Gaps,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 22 March 2006, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/mags/jdw/history/jdw2006/jdw13707.htm@current&pageSelected=allJanes&keyword=Special%20Forces%20(Maritime)%20(Pakistan)&backPath=http://search.janes.com/Search&Prod_Name=JDW&), however in January 2009, the IISS estimated 1,400 Marine personnel (“Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 354). Unit representation based on: “PNS QASIM,” Pak Navy, accessed on 18 August 2009, available at http://www.paknavy.gov.pk/QASIM.htm.
[168] Located at PNS Qasim (“Special Forces (Maritime) (Pakistan),” Jane’s Amphibious and Special Forces, 24 June 2009, available at http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Amphibious-and-Special-Forces/Specia...).
[169] “Passing-out parade of 29th batch of Pak Marines,” News International, 10 August 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/print1.asp?id=129238.
[170] The Marines have the additional responsibility for security along the Indus delta creeks, and a commando group of Marine personnel is also trained for special operations (“Special Forces (Maritime) (Pakistan),” Jane’s Amphibious and Special Forces, 24 June 2009, available at http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Amphibious-and-Special-Forces/Specia...).
[171] “PNS QASIM,” Pak Navy, accessed on 18 August 2009, available at http://www.paknavy.gov.pk/QASIM.htm.
[172] This battalion is currently providing manpower and professional expertise to the Navy for security at various locations in Pakistan, and it is also responsible for the security of Naval VIPs (“PNS QASIM,” Pak Navy, accessed on 18 August 2009, available at http://www.paknavy.gov.pk/QASIM.htm).
[173] This battalion is tasked with thwarting external threat to Pakistan’s territorial waters through its “creeks area” (“PNS QASIM,” Pak Navy, accessed on 18 August 2009, available at http://www.paknavy.gov.pk/QASIM.htm).
[174] The Army’s Command and Staff College and its School of Infantry and Tactics are located in Quetta (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 13).
[175] While Brig. Syed Shahid Ali is the commander of the regimental depot. The Colonel Commandant, an honorary title given to the highest ranking officer in the regiment, is Maj. Gen. Mukhtar Ahmed (“Defence Day celebrated with,” News International, 7 September 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/print1.asp?id=134303; “Maj Gen Mukhtar Ahmed made new Col Commandant AJK regiment,” Pak Tribune, 28 September 2007, available at http://www.paktribune.com/news/print.php?id=120578).
[176] Abottabad is located in the NWFP, north of Islamabad and east of Pesahawar. (Lt. Gen. Shafaatullah Shah is the Colonel Commandant (“Shafaatullah appointed Colonel Commandant,” The Daily Times, 27 April 2008, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008\04\27\story_27-4-2008_pg7_17).
[177] Brig. Sikander Khan is the commander of the regimental depot, and Lt. Gen. Sabahat Hussain is the Colonel Commandant (Hasan Mansoor, “Winter threatens Pakistan quake survivors: aid agencies,” Sydney Morning Herald, 2 November 2008, available at http://news.smh.com.au/world/winter-threatens-pakistan-quake-survivors-a... “Soldiers have always lived up to expectations,” The Daily Times, 16 January 2007, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007\01\16\story_16-1-2007_pg7_53).
[178] The Northern Light Infantry (NLI) was formerly a paramilitary force commanded by the Force Commander Northern Areas and subordinate to the Interior Ministry only in name. However, after its performance in the 1999 Kargil War, the NLI was elevated to the status of a regular Pakistan Army regiment (“When Kargil cover-up failed, Pak showered money to douse the anger,” Indian Express, 13 August 2000, available at http://www.indianexpress.com/ie/daily/20000813/ina13030.html). IISS (in 2009) and Cloughley (in 2000) still classified the NLI as a paramilitary force (see: “Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 355; Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...). IISS estimates 12,000 personnel in the Northern Light Infantry (NLI), organized three paramilitary battalions (“Pakistan,” The Military Balance 2009, Routledge (for The International Institute for Strategic Studies), 2009, p. 355). Cloughley says the NLI is composed of 13 battalions whose members are locally recruited (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...).
[179] The regimental center is at Bunji, near Gilgit (“Press Release,” ISPR, 30 April 2008, available at http://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=318). Lt. Gen. Mohsin Kamal is the Colonel Commandant (“Press Release,” ISPR, 30 April 2008, available at http://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=318).
[180] The Punjab regiment is based in Mardan in Pakistan’s NWFP. Brig. Imtiaz Ahmad Wyne is the commander of the regimental depot, and Lt. Gen. Muhammad Masood Aslam is the Colonel Commandant (“Defence Day celebrated with,” News International, 7 September 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/print1.asp?id=134303; “Lt-Gen Masood Aslam new Colonel Commandant of Punjab Regiment,” News International, 16 March 2008, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=101600&cid=1143077412&ei=Q...).
[181] Near Hyderabad (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 14).
[182] Personnel are trained at the School of Armor and Mechanized Warfare in Nowshera (“Training Institutions,” Pakistan Army, accessed 14 July 2009, available at http://www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk/AWPReview/HomePage.aspx?rnd=468).
[183] “Press Release,” Inter Services Public Relations, 13 March 2008, available at http://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=397.
[184] At least one brigade was mobilized to repair roads, bridges, and culverts in Swat in June 2009 (Daud Khattak, “Command & control structure of militants dismantled,” News International, 7 June 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22590).
[185] Personnel are trained at the Military College of Engineering in Risalpur (“Training Institutions,” Pakistan Army, accessed 14 July 2009, available at http://www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk/AWPReview/HomePage.aspx?rnd=468).
[186] “Newly promoted major generals posted,” The Daily Times, 3 September 2008, available at http://dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008\09\03\story_3-9-2008_pg7_3.
[187] “Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 13.
[188] “Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 14.
[189] The corps training center is located in Attock (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...), however the School of Artillery is in Nowshera (“Training Institutions,” Pakistan Army, accessed 14 July 2009, available at http://www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk/AWPReview/HomePage.aspx?rnd=468).
[190] “Corps commanders of Peshawar, Quetta and Bahawalpur changed,” Daily Times, 15 April 2007, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007\04\15\story_15-4-2007_pg7_19.
[191] The corps training center is located in Kohat (Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata...), however the Military College of Signals is in Rawalpindi (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 13).
[192] The Army Medical College is located in Rawalpindi (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 13).
[193] The School of Army Education is located in Murree  (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 13).
[194] The Military College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering is located in Rawalpindi (“Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009, p. 13).
[195] “Attestation parade of recruits held at Ordnance Corps Centre,” Pakistan Press International, 3 October 2005, accessed via HighBeam Research.
[196] Bases and headquarters for which the operational unit has not been identified are in italics. Unless otherwise indicated (by endnote), the source is: “Jane’s Sentinel Security Assessment – South Asia,” Jane’s Information Group, 25 March 2009, accessed 29 June 2009.
[197] Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/mags/jir/history/jir2000/jir00163.htm@current&pageSelected=allJanes&keyword=%22frontier%20force%22%20pakistan&backPath=http://search.janes.com/Search&Prod_Name=JIR&.
[198] “Bangash,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 February 2009, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Bangash.pdf.
[199] “Bangash,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 February 2009, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Bangash.pdf.
[200] “Bangash,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 February 2009, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Bangash.pdf.
[201] Brian Cloughley, “Asia, Transition Time in Pakistan’s Army,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 April 2000, available at http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/mags/jir/history/jir2000/jir00163.htm@current&pageSelected=allJanes&keyword=%22frontier%20force%22%20pakistan&backPath=http://search.janes.com/Search&Prod_Name=JIR&.
[202] “Training Institutions,” Pakistan Army, accessed 14 July 2009, available at http://www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk/AWPReview/HomePage.aspx?rnd=468.
[203] “Pakistan plans 60 new platoons to fight terrorism, drug smuggling,” Associated Press of Pakistan, 19 June 2006, accessed via NewsBank.
[204] “Pakistan Armed Forces: Aircraft Order of Battle,” Scramble, accessed on 30 June 2009, available at http://www.scramble.nl/pk.htm. (Unable to verify this information with another source.)
[205] “Pakistan Armed Forces: Aircraft Order of Battle,” Scramble, accessed on 30 June 2009, available at http://www.scramble.nl/pk.htm.
[206] Headquarters set up at the “Circuit House” (Hameedullah Khan, “Cantonment in Matta planned,” Dawn Media Group, 5 December 2007, available at http://www.dawn.com/2007/12/05/top12.htm).
[207] Anwarullah Khan, “Kayani visits Bajaur; 15 killed in clashes,” Dawn Media Group, 29 September 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/09/29/top3.htm.
[208] Near Timergara (“Five soldiers injured in Timergara rocket attack,” Dawn Media Group, 16 July 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/07/16/top5.htm).
[209] Mohmand,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Mohmand.pdf; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 5034.
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[213] “Orakzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Orakzai.pdf; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 3419.
[214] “Four soldiers of Chitral Scouts killed in Khyber,” Dawn Media Group, 9 July 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/07/09/top3.htm.
[215] “Orakzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Orakzai.pdf; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 4288.
[216] “Afridi,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 6 February 2009, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Afridi_combo.pdf; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 4438.
[217] “Mohmand,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Mohmand.pdf; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 5034.
[218] “Militants kidnap 10 FC men in NWA,” News International, 31 July 2009, available at http://thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=23601; “Tribe: Wazir-Utmanzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 January 2009; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 1346.
[219] “Tribe: Wazir-Utmanzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 January 2009; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 5015.
[220] “Pakistan minister says Frontier Corps suffered higher casualties in Waziristan,” The Daily Times, 18 August 2006, accessed via NewsBank.
[221] “Tribe: Wazir-Utmanzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 January 2009; “Scouts HQ in Miranshah,” News International, 8 December 2003, available at http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-19635085_ITM.
[222] “Kayani visits North & South Waziristan,” News International, 3 May 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=21901.
[223] Mushtaq Yusufzai and Irfan Burki, “Jets pound Baitullah’s stronghold, 12 killed,” News International, 14 June 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22743.
[224] “Tribe: Wazir-Utmanzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 23 January 2009; Pakistan Gazetteer, 14 November 2007, p. 4736.
[225] Mushtaq Yusufzai and Irfan Burki, “Operation launched in South Waziristan,” News International, 27 May 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22377.
[226] Mushtaq Yusufzai, “Forces pound militants’ hideouts in SWA,” News International, 17 June 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22792.
[227] “Militants overrun paramilitary fort: Militia suffers heavy casualty,” Dawn Media Group, 17 January 2008, available at http://www.dawn.com/2008/01/17/top1.htm.
[228] Mushtaq Yusufzai and Irfan Burki, “Operation launched in South Waziristan,” News International, 27 May 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22377.
[229] “Troops face tough resistance in SWA", News International, 23 June 2009, available at http://thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22883; Pakistan Gazeteer, 14 November 2007, p. 4389.
[230] “Wazirs-Ahmadzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 10 February 2009, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Ahmadzai_Wazir.pdf; Pakistan Gazeteer, 14 November 2007, p. 4858.
[231] Mushtaq Yusufzai and Irfan Burki, “Operation launched in South Waziristan,” News International, 27 May 2009, available at http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22377.
[232] “Pakistani daily says 73 troops killed in tribal areas,” News International, 12 September 2005, accessed via NewsBank; Wazirs-Ahmadzai,” Program for Culture & Conflict Studies, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, 10 February 2009, available at http://www.nps.edu/Programs/CCs/Docs/Pakistan/Tribes/Ahmadzai_Wazir.pdf; Asif Haroon Raja, “A peep into Waziristan and Orakzai Agency,” Asian Tribune, 11 July 2009, available at http://asiantribune.com/07/11/a-peep-into-waziristan-and-orakzai-agency/.
[233] “Seven killed in North Waziristan strikes,” Dawn Media Group, 30 June 2009, available at http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/11-seven-killed-north-waziristan-strikes--il--06.
[234] Salman Masood, “A bomb kills 8 Pakistanis, and it is seen as a warning,” New York Times, 3 October 2008, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/03/world/asia/03iht-03pstan.17458262.html.
[235] In Bermal Tehsil (“5 officials missing in Waziristan attack,” The Daily Times, 25 August 2008, available at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008\08\25\story_25-8-2008_pg1_7).
[236] Near Wana (“Seven killed in North Waziristan strikes,” Dawn Media Group, 30 June 2009, available at http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakis...).